Rebels celebrate in the outskirts of Benghazi with a pot of beans left behind by Moammar Gadhafi's forces.
Libyan rebels walk past the wreckage of military vehicles belonging to Gadhafi forces bombed by French airplanes in al-Wayfiyah, west of Benghazi.
Patrick Baz/AFP/Getty Images
An American F-18 takes off from the Aviano air base in Italy. The U.S., Britain and France pounded Libya with Tomahawk missiles and air strikes on Sunday.
Giuseppe Cacace/AFP/Getty Images
Pro-Gadhafi supporters in Tunisia rally on the roof of the Libyan Cultural Center.
Fethi Belaid/AFP/Getty Images
A bus burns on a road in the outskirts of Benghazi.
A rebel dressed in an Italian national soccer team jacket celebrates with a rocket in the outskirts of Benghazi.
A Tomahawk missile launches toward Libya from the USS Barry in the Mediterranean Sea.
Fireman Roderick Eubanks/U.S. Navy/AP
A rebel shoots in the air as he celebrates with others on a tank belonging to the forces of Moammar Gadhafi in the outskirts of Benghazi.
Moammar Gadhafi vowed a "long war" as allied forces launched a second night of strikes on Libya on Sunday, and jubilant rebels who only a day before were in danger of being crushed by his forces now boasted they would bring him down. The U.S. military said the international assault would hit any Gadhafi forces on the ground that are attacking the opposition.
The U.S. military said the bombardment so far — a rain of Tomahawk cruise missiles and precision bombs from American and European aircraft, including long-range stealth B-2 bombers — had succeeded in heavily degrading Gadhafi's air defenses.
U.S. Defense Secretary Robert Gates, in his first public remarks since the start of the bombings, said the Pentagon expected to turn control of the military mission over to a coalition led either by the French and British or by NATO "in a matter of days."
He said President Obama is "more aware than almost anybody of the stress on the military." While the U.S. "will have a military role in the coalition," Gates said, it "will not have the preeminent role."
The international campaign went beyond hitting anti-aircraft sites. U.S., British and French planes blasted a line of tanks that had been moving on the rebel capital, Benghazi, in the opposition-held eastern half of the country. On Sunday, at least seven demolished tanks smoldered in a field 12 miles south of Benghazi, many of them with their turrets and treads blown off, alongside charred armored personnel carriers, jeeps and SUVs of the kind used by Gadhafi fighters.
"I feel like in two days max we will destroy Gadhafi," said Ezzeldin Helwani, 35, a rebel standing next to the smoldering wreckage of an armored personnel carrier, the air thick with smoke and the pungent smell of burning rubber.
Despite the strikes, Gadhafi's troops lashed back, bombarding the rebel-held city of Misurata with artillery and tanks on Sunday, the opposition reported.
Rebels Forces Get Temporary Reprieve
The strikes gave immediate, if temporary, relief to Benghazi.
Airstrikes, apparently from French aircraft, devastated a Libyan tank force 12 miles south of Benghazi. At least seven demolished tanks were still smoldering in a field hours later, five of them with their turrets and treads blown off, alongside two charred armored personnel carriers and around a dozen damaged jeeps and SUVs of the type often used by Gadhafi fighters.
Jubilant rebel fighters climbed on the remains on the tanks, shooting assault rifles in the air in celebration. It was not known how many people were killed in the strike — any bodies had been taken away in the morning — but shredded boots and foam mattresses and tomato paste cans strewn around the scene suggested the Gadhafi forces had been camped at the site when they were hit.
U.S. and European military officials said the assault was only the first wave in the international operation in Libya. But already there were signs of differences over the goals. France took a more assertive stance, suggesting the allies' intervention must ultimately lead to Gadhafi's downfall. The U.S. military appeared more wary of overtly taking a side and getting pulled deeper into Libya's conflict, with the top American U.S. officer saying Gadhafi's ouster wasn't necessarily the goal.
Libya's claims of civilians among the dead from the strikes also appeared to make Arab countries nervous, after the Arab League took the unprecedented step of calling for a no-fly zone. On Sunday, Arab League chief Amr Moussa criticized the allied strikes, saying they went beyond what the Arab body had supported.
"What happened differs from the no-fly zone objectives," Moussa told reporters in Cairo. "What we want is civilians' protection not shelling more civilians."
U.N.: "All Necessary Means" To Protect Civilians
The initial assault aimed to take out Gadhafi's air defenses to clear the way for enforcing a no-fly zone, targeting more than 20 radar systems, communications centers and surface-to-air missile sites. But the U.N. resolution authorizing the action goes much further, allowing "all necessary means" to protect civilians.
That means the U.S. and Europeans have a free hand in the next stages to attack Gadhafi's ground forces besieging rebel cities or other military targets. The rebels, who control most of the eastern half of Libya, hope the allied intervention will tip the scales back in their favor after an onslaught by Gadhafi's forces threatened to reverse their gains early in the uprising — and eventually lead to the toppling of the Libyan leader.
The strikes hit one of Libya's main air bases, on Tripoli's outskirts, the opposition said. Also hit, it said, was an air force complex outside Misurata, the last rebel-held city in western Libya — which has been under siege the past week by Gadhafi forces. Those forces have been bombarding the city from the complex, which houses an air base and a military academy.
Gadhafi Forces Continue Push In Misurata, Benghazi
Gadhafi forces resumed bombarding Misurata after daylight on Sunday, said Switzerland-based Libyan activist Fathi al-Warfali.
"Misurata is the only city in western Libya not under Gadhafi's control; he is trying hard to change its position," said al-Warfali, who told The Associated Press he was in touch with residents in the city.
In Benghazi, the rebel capital and first city to fall to the uprising that began Feb. 15, people said the strikes happened just in time. Libyan government tanks and troops on Saturday had reached the edges of the city in eastern Libya in fierce fighting that killed more than 120 people according to Gibreil Hewadi, a member of the rebel health committee in Benghazi. He said the dead included rebel fighters and civilians, among them women and children.
Sunday, the city was quiet. As part of the international assault, French warplanes hit targets in the Benghazi area.
"It was a matter of minutes and Gadhafi's forces would have been in Benghazi," said Akram Abdul Wahab, a 20-year-old butcher in the city.
Mohammed Faraj, 44, a former military man who joined the rebels, held a grenade in each hand as he manned a checkpoint on the outskirts of the city.
"Me and all of Benghazi, we will die before Gadhafi sets foot here again," Faraj told The Associated Press. "Our spirits are very high."
Asked on ABC's "This Week" if the allied effort aimed to get rid of Gadhafi, France's ambassador to the United Nations, Gerard Araud, said "We want the Libyan people to be able to express their will, I've said ...and we consider that it means that Gadhafi has to go."
Adm. Mike Mullen: U.S. Mission In Libya 'Limited'
Still, the top U.S. military officer said the goals of the international campaign are "limited" and won't necessarily lead to the ousting of Gadhafi.
Asked on NBC's "Meet the Press" whether it was possible that the mission's goals could be achieved while leaving Gadafi in power, Adm. Mike Mullen said, "That's certainly potentially one outcome." Pressed on this point later in an interview on CNN's "State of the Union," Mullen was more vague, saying it was too early to speculate. He said the Libyan leader is "going to have to make some choices about his own future" at some point.
But an administration building a few yards from Gadhafi's tent in his huge personal compound was hit and badly damaged late Sunday. An Associated Press photographer at the scene said half of the round, three-story building was knocked down, smoke was rising from it and pieces of a cruise missile were scattered around the scene. About 300 Gadhafi supporters were in the compound at the time. It was not known if any were hurt.
Gadhafi vowed to fight on. In a phone call to Libyan state television, he said he would not let up on Benghazi and said the government had opened up weapons depots to all Libyans, who were now armed with "automatic weapons, mortars and bombs." State television said Gadhafi's supporters were converging on airports as human shields.
"We promise you a long war," he said.
He called the international assault "simply a colonial crusader aggression that may ignite another large-scale crusader war."
Throughout the day Sunday, Libyan TV showed a stream of what it said were popular demonstrations in support of Gadhafi in Tripoli and other towns and cities. It showed cars with horns blaring, women ullulating, young men waving green flags and holding up pictures of the Libyan leader. Women and children chanted, "God, Muammar and Libya, that's it!"
"Our blood is green, not red," one unidentified woman told the broadcaster, referring to the signature color of Gadhafi's regime. "He is our father, we will be with him to the last drop of blood. Our blood is green with our love for him."
The overnight attack early Sunday shook coastal cities, including Tripoli, where anti-aircraft guns could be heard firing.
Libyan TV quoted the armed forces command as saying 48 people were killed and 150 wounded in the allied assault. It said most of the casualties were children but gave no more details.
Mullen said he had seen no reports of civilian casualties.
Qatar To Join Libya Operation
France said Sunday that Qatar will join the international operation against the forces of Libyan leader Moammar Gadhafi within hours.
French Defense Ministry spokesman Laurent Teisseire said Qatar warplanes will join the operation alongside French jets, as a "historic partner" of France in the Arab world.
Operation Odyssey Dawn
At the Pentagon, Navy Vice Adm. William E. Gortney underlined that strikes are not specifically targeting the Libyan leader or his residence in Tripoli. He said that any of Gadhafi's ground forces advancing on the rebels were open targets.
"If they are moving on opposition forces ... yes, we will take them under attack," he told reporters.
"We judge these strikes to have been very effective in significantly degrading the regime's air defense capability," Gortney said. "We believe his forces are under significant stress and suffering from both isolation and a good deal of confusion."
What happens if rebel forces eventually go on the offensive against Gadhafi's troops remains unclear. Gortney would not say whether strikes would hit Libyan troops fighting back against rebel assaults.
Sunday night, heavy anti-aircraft fire erupted repeatedly in the capital, Tripoli, with arcs of red tracer bullets and exploding shells in the dark sky, marking the start of a second night of international strikes. Gadhafi supporters in the streets shot automatic weapons in the air in a show of defiance. It was not immediately known what was being targeted in the new strikes.
Earlier, French fighter jets fired the first salvos overnight, carrying out several strikes in the rebel-held east, around the Benghazi area, while British fighter jets also bombarded the North African nation.
British Tornado jets flew from Marham Air Base in eastern England to Libya and back. Britain's Defence Minister, Liam Fox, says that's the longest-ranging bombing mission conducted by the Royal Air Force since Britain went to war to oust Argentinian forces from the Falkland Islands.
The cruise missile barrage was fired from five U.S. ships in the Mediterranean — the guided-missile destroyers USS Stout and USS Barry, and three submarines, USS Providence, USS Scranton and USS Florida.
The U.S. military announced that Navy electronic warfare aircraft and Marine Corps attack jets joined the international assault early Sunday. Navy EA-18G Growlers launched from unspecified land bases to provide electronic warfare support over Libya. Marine AV-8B Harriers from the USS Kearsarge sailing in the Mediterranean conducted strikes against Gadhafi's ground forces and air defenses.
Obama said military action was not his first choice and reiterated that he would not send American ground troops.
"This is not an outcome the U.S. or any of our partners sought," Obama said from Brazil, where he is starting a five-day visit to Latin America. "We cannot stand idly by when a tyrant tells his people there will be no mercy."
The U.S. has struck Libya before. Former President Ronald Reagan launched U.S. airstrikes on Libya in 1986 after a bombing at a Berlin disco — which the U.S. blamed on Libya — that killed three people, including two American soldiers. The airstrikes killed about 100 people in Libya, including Gadhafi's young adopted daughter at his Tripoli compound.
Italian Tugboat Crew Taken Into Custody
Libyan authorities have detained the crew of an Italian tugboat in the port of Tripoli. The Ansa News Agency reported that the group included 8 Italians, 2 Indians and a Ukranian.
NPR's Sylvia Poggioli reports that given close economic and historical ties with Libya, Italy fears it's the country most exposed to possible retaliations by the Gadhafi regime. Italian authorities say Libyan missiles would not be able to reach Italian territory.