Immigration, The Gold Mountain And A Wedding Photo

  • The wedding photograph of Wong Lan Fong and Yee Shew Ning, in front of the Mei Yi Mei Church, a Chinese Methodist Church, at the island of Honam, across the Pearl River from Canton (now Guangzhou) in 1926.
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    The wedding photograph of Wong Lan Fong and Yee Shew Ning, in front of the Mei Yi Mei Church, a Chinese Methodist Church, at the island of Honam, across the Pearl River from Canton (now Guangzhou) in 1926.
    U.S. National Archives and Records
  • Wong Lan Fong only spent one to two nights at Angel Island at a time when most were detained for up to two weeks. This is Fong's "Declaration of Non-immigrant Alien about to Depart for the United States" document from April 27, 1927.
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    Wong Lan Fong only spent one to two nights at Angel Island at a time when most were detained for up to two weeks. This is Fong's "Declaration of Non-immigrant Alien about to Depart for the United States" document from April 27, 1927.
    U.S. National Archives and Records
  • Immigrants arriving at Angel Island in 1931.
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    Immigrants arriving at Angel Island in 1931.
    National Archives, Records of the Public Health Service
  • A Raumo Egyptian cigarettes package from 1914-15 contained an accompanying "coaching note" in Chinese. Hopeful immigrants would memorize answers to make sure they were responding to questions from immigration officials correctly. A note was found hidden in this pack and reads, "Grandmother bound feet. Chun Seak with me not recognize. Sure remember."
    Hide caption
    A Raumo Egyptian cigarettes package from 1914-15 contained an accompanying "coaching note" in Chinese. Hopeful immigrants would memorize answers to make sure they were responding to questions from immigration officials correctly. A note was found hidden in this pack and reads, "Grandmother bound feet. Chun Seak with me not recognize. Sure remember."
    National Archives
  • This coaching note reads, "Grandmother bound feet. Chun Seak with me not recognize. Sure remember."
    Hide caption
    This coaching note reads, "Grandmother bound feet. Chun Seak with me not recognize. Sure remember."
    National Archives
  • Wong Lan Fong, like many Chinese immigrants, came through Angel Island in California. Here, immigrant children pose for a photo at Ellis Island.
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    Wong Lan Fong, like many Chinese immigrants, came through Angel Island in California. Here, immigrant children pose for a photo at Ellis Island.
    U.S. National Archives and Records
  • Michael Pupa at age 13 in 1951. Pupa, who is now 73, is the only living individual featured in the National Archives exhibit.
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    Michael Pupa at age 13 in 1951. Pupa, who is now 73, is the only living individual featured in the National Archives exhibit.
    U.S. National Archives and Records
  • In the first page of Michael Pupa's pre-hearing summary from 1951, under "additional comments", it says "Parents taken to ghetto in 1942 supposed to be shot." Pupa, who is now 73, is the only living individual featured in the exhibit.
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    In the first page of Michael Pupa's pre-hearing summary from 1951, under "additional comments", it says "Parents taken to ghetto in 1942 supposed to be shot." Pupa, who is now 73, is the only living individual featured in the exhibit.
    U.S. National Archives and Records

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Deep inside the National Archives in Washington, D.C., old case files tell the stories of hundreds of thousands of hopeful immigrants to the U.S. between 1880 and the end of World War II.

These stories are in the form of original documents and photographs that were often attached to immigrant case files. Many of them are part of a new exhibit at the Archives, called "Attachments."

For University of Minnesota history professor Erika Lee, one of these attachments turned out to be very special.

When she was in graduate school at the University of California, Berkeley, in the mid-1990s, she was researching the Exclusion Era, a period in which Chinese immigration to the U.S. was severely restricted.

Lee called library after library looking for primary source material but came up empty. Then she called the National Archives in San Bruno, Calif.

"I was expecting the usual 'No, I'm sorry,' and to my surprise, the archivist there said, 'Yeah! We have about 70,000 individual immigrant case files that have just been released to the public'," Lee said.

There were boxes and boxes of files. Too many to count. The first file she asked to see was her own family's. When she opened it, her grandmother's wedding photograph fell out.

"As a historian, this was like a breakthrough discovery of a lifetime, and then, just as a granddaughter, it was extremely emotional," Lee said.

The Wedding Photograph

The black and white photo from 1926, which is now featured in the National Archives exhibit, shows Lee's grandparents looking straight into the camera.

Her grandfather, Yee Shew Ning, is smiling in his tuxedo at the entrance of a Chinese Methodist Church in Guangzhou, China. Her grandmother, Wong Lan Fong, is wearing a collared-silk dress and wedding veil. She looks like she's trying to smile. She has one arm wrapped around her husband's and is carrying a bouquet of flowers.

Bruce Bustard, senior curator for the exhibit, says the photo looks like a typical wedding photograph — until you look a little closer. A five-digit number on a corner of the photo is Fong's immigration case file number and also the number of the steamship that Lee's grandparents arrived on 85 years ago.

"Chinese immigrants really looked to the United States. They called it Gum Saan, or Gold Mountain," Lee said. "The United States was seen as the place where you could make your dreams come true."

Immigration From China

It was far from a golden arrival. Following U.S. legislation cracking down on immigration from China beginning in 1882, most Chinese arrivals were held in detention for long periods. Women often were suspected of being low-class laborers or even prostitutes.

A Polish Refugee Makes Cleveland His Home

The exhibit features 31 hopeful immigrants to the United States from 1880 to World War II. The only living individual featured in the exhibit is Michael Pupa.

When Pupa was about five years old, he became an orphan when his parents and baby sister were murdered by Nazis in Poland during the Holocaust.

He spent two years hiding in the forests with his uncle before moving to Germany. After the end of World War II, he moved from one displacement camp to another. Finally, in 1951, he was allowed to come to the U.S. as a refugee, where he was raised by a family in Cleveland. He chuckles when he looks at the photo of himself and the documents he signed as a 13-year-old at the National Archives.

"Ahh! Why would they have this stuff on me? And then I realized — we're all here," Pupa said.

Pupa is a 73-year-old retired businessman living in Cleveland, Ohio with his wife and two kids.

Lee's grandfather knew his wife would have to overcome these stereotypes before immigration officials would authorize her entry into the U.S. So he saved his wages from his laundry business for an entire year to purchase a first-class ticket for his wife.

"He was really put through the wringer," Lee said. "And I became angry as I learned more about this injustice of how Chinese immigrants were treated during this time period."

Lee was recently named director of the Immigration History Research Center at the University of Minnesota and is co-author of Angel Island: Immigrant Gateway to America.

David Ferriero, who is archivist of the United States, says immigration has always been a topic of conversation and debate in this country.

"Some of the stories that are being told [in the National Archives exhibit] in terms of treatment of individuals are still very much the same stories that are being told today," Ferriero says.

Lee says that too often, the conversation focuses on the conflicts between people on either side of the immigration debate, and she hopes the new exhibit will remind people both of the "conflicts and promise" of immigration.

The exhibit is scheduled to run through Sept. 4.

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