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As Final Election Results Trickle In, Low Chance For Major Changes In Iran

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As Final Election Results Trickle In, Low Chance For Major Changes In Iran

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As Final Election Results Trickle In, Low Chance For Major Changes In Iran

As Final Election Results Trickle In, Low Chance For Major Changes In Iran

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Reformers did well in Iran's parliamentary elections, but Iranians say the chaos in neighboring countries makes them wary of too much change beyond working on the economy.

LOURDES GARCIA-NAVARRO, HOST:

Last week, reformers in Iran made substantial gains in that country's parliamentary elections. This could help the moderate president's plans to improve the economy, but NPR's Peter Kenyon reports from Tehran that people don't see broader political changes coming anytime soon.

PETER KENYON, BYLINE: A covered bazaar in north Tehran has its share of visitors, but there seems to be a lot more window shopping than buying going on. Carpet shop owner Ali Mirnezami confirms that impression. He says this shop has been operating for 90 years, but at the moment, things aren't looking good

ALI MIRNEZAMI: (Through interpreter) The market is down. It's not bouncing back. Were still waiting for final election results. And we hope that will improve things, but so far nothing tangible.

KENYON: Mirnezami is eager for Iranian President Hassan Rouhani to fulfill his promise to use the money coming into Iran as part of last year's nuclear agreement with world powers to boost the economy.

MIRNEZAMI: (Through interpreter) They need to tackle inflation, bring it down and also create some jobs for our young people. Then they need to look to the production sector and rehabilitate our factories. I hope the early signs of a more cooperative parliament are true.

KENYON: If the parliament isn't more cooperative, it won't be for lack of turnout by reform-minded voters. Even though few reform candidates were allowed to run, voters like Mohammad Reza Rezahani stood in long lines to try to keep hard-liners out of parliament. The reason, he said, is not just the economy.

MOHAMMAD REZA REZAHANI: I vote today only for freedom - a little freedom, a little. I'm not having any freedom - a little freedom.

KENYON: All right, would you like to see a parliament that can work together with President Rouhani?

REZAHANI: Yes, yes, I like it.

KENYON: It's clear that voters like Rezahani are yearning for more than just a job. Iran has a young population, and the desire to get out from under conservative religious social restrictions and to be able to speak their mind without fear of arrest is palpable. But nearly seven years after authorities crushed massive street protests, reformers are still threatened with arrest and expectations for change are extremely low. For one thing, there will be large numbers of conservatives in the next parliament who will oppose changes on sensitive issues like the mandatory headscarf for women.

Iranians also see external reasons for caution. Analyst Foad Izadi at Tehran University says Iranians only need to look at the chaos plaguing the region to see how easily popular demands for change can get out of hand.

FOAD IZADI: So if people want to change things, and a lot of people want to change things, they do not want another revolution because revolutions will be messy and deadly. And so they do want to change some aspects of of government, but they want to do it through polling stations that are organized by this government.

KENYON: That leaves the focus on the economy, which suits cooking and catering business woman Sanaz Minaei just fine. She shows a visitor a cooking class at one of her several companies and says the opportunities for Iran are huge if only the country can rejoin the global economy as promised.

SANAZ MINAEI: (Through interpreter) Certainly we'd like a parliament that will open up communications with the outside world. And when the parliament is cooperating with the government, there is more peace, and peace is good for business. My wish is to see all the sanctions finally lifted so we can get back to doing business with the rest of the world.

KENYON: Minaei includes the U.S. in that wish, but doesn't expect it to come true overnight. She's one of Iran's most successful businesswomen and yet she can't even get a visa to visit her sisters in America, let alone do business there. Peter Kenyon, NPR News, Tehran.

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Amid Uncertainty, Iranians Hope For Economic Reforms

Amid Uncertainty, Iranians Hope For Economic Reforms

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People ride a horse and carriage at sunset in Isfahan's UNESCO-listed central square on June 2, 2014 in Isfahan, Iran. Isfahan, with its immense mosques, picturesque bridges and ancient bazaar, is a virtual living museum of Iranian traditional culture, and is Iran's top tourist destination. John Moore/Getty Images hide caption

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John Moore/Getty Images

People ride a horse and carriage at sunset in Isfahan's UNESCO-listed central square on June 2, 2014 in Isfahan, Iran. Isfahan, with its immense mosques, picturesque bridges and ancient bazaar, is a virtual living museum of Iranian traditional culture, and is Iran's top tourist destination.

John Moore/Getty Images

In Iran, voters are still waiting for clarity from the Feb. 26 parliamentary elections, but they're optimistic that a more cooperative legislature will help the government boost the economy. Hopes for broader social and political reforms, however, remain faint.

On a recent afternoon, a covered bazaar in north Tehran has its share of visitors, but there seems to be a lot more window-shopping than buying going on. Carpet shop owner Ali Mirnezami confirms that impression. He says this shop has been operating for 90 years, but at the moment things aren't looking good.

"The market is down, it's not bouncing back," he says. "We're still waiting for final election results and we hope that will improve things, but so far nothing tangible."

Mirnezami says Iranian President Hassan Rouhani needs a cooperative parliament to fulfill his promise to use money coming into Iran as part of last year's nuclear agreement to restore some vitality to the economy.

First, Mirnezami says, the government needs to tackle inflation.

"They also need to create some jobs for our young people," he says. "Then they need to look to the production sector, rehabilitate our factories. I hope the early signs of a more cooperative parliament are true."

Broader Reforms Still Elusive

As Final Election Results Trickle In, Low Chance For Major Changes In Iran

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Reform voters stood in long lines on election day in hopes of keeping hardliners out of parliament as much as possible. Younger voters like Mohammad Reza Rezahani made it clear he had more than a better economy on his mind.

"I vote today only for freedom — a little freedom, a little. I'm not having any freedom," he says. When asked if he'd like to see a parliament that will work with President Rouhani, he eagerly agrees.

Many younger Iranians have been chafing under the country's conservative religious social restrictions. They would love to be able to speak their mind without fear of arrest. But nearly seven years after authorities crushed massive street protests, reformers are still threatened with arrest and expectations for change are extremely low.

For one thing, there will be large numbers of conservatives in the next parliament who may back Rouhani on economic issues, but will likely vote against changes on sensitive issues such as the mandatory headscarf for women.

Iranians shop in Tehran's ancient Grand Bazaar on Jan. 16, 2016, the day many sanctions were lifted as part of a nuclear deal. President Rouhani called the deal a "golden page" in Iran's history. Atta Kenare/AFP/Getty Images hide caption

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Atta Kenare/AFP/Getty Images

Iranians shop in Tehran's ancient Grand Bazaar on Jan. 16, 2016, the day many sanctions were lifted as part of a nuclear deal. President Rouhani called the deal a "golden page" in Iran's history.

Atta Kenare/AFP/Getty Images

Iranians also see external reasons for caution. Analyst Foad Izadi at Tehran University says Iranians only need look at the chaos plaguing the region to see how easily popular demands for change can get out of hand.

"So if people want to change things — and a lot of people want to change things — they do not want another revolution," he says. "Because revolutions would be messy and deadly ... so they do want to change some things about this government, but they want to do it through polling stations organized by this government."

In Isfahan, A Plea For The World To Visit

To the south in the culturally rich city of Isfahan, business owners would be perfectly happy with economic improvements. At Imam Square, a UNESCO World Heritage site featuring ornately tiled grand mosques and a palace, locals take a spin in horse-drawn carriages.

But driver Seyed Mehdi says that's because it's a weekend — most of the time he's scrounging for business. "We don't need the locals, they already know all about this place," he says. "We need tourists, we need foreigners!"

Ahmed Turkan minds a visitor-free handicrafts store nearby. He says no one he knows is especially interested in whether Iran's reformers or hardline conservatives will be in charge of the next parliament. What people want, he says, is some action on getting the economy moving. He spreads his hands and asks, is it wrong to be friends with the outside world?

"Some 50 years ago when there were very few tourists, you could still have seen more people here on this square," he says. "There could be a hell of a lot more people on this square! But as everyone keeps telling us, the signs are promising."

How Many More Visitors Can Isfahan Handle?

In terms of sheer numbers of visitors, the signs are indeed promising — visits to Isfahan were up 60 percent last year, according to Mohsen Yarmohamadiyan at the provincial culture and tourism department. He says in the wake of last year's nuclear deal, Iran is starting to overcome the relentless bad press it gets in the West.

"Ever since this new government took over, they've been trying to bring the real image of this nation to the world," he says. "We're slowly correcting a lot of misinformation."

But for Isfahan, that good news also comes with a challenge. Yarmohamadiyan says much needs to be done for the province to accommodate more tourists, should the numbers continue to grow.

"As more people come to Isfahan, we're urging hotels to build more rooms," he says. "We also have around 1,000 historic houses here, and we're urging the owners to consider converting them into boutique hotels."

But development doesn't always get top priority. After years of debate, Yarmohamadiyan says builders of a new subway line have agreed to reroute it around major cultural sites, including those at Imam Square.

With major social and political reforms still on the back burner, the focus remains on the economy. That's fine with Tehran cooking and catering businesswoman Sanaz Minaei. She shows a visitor a cooking class at one of her several companies, and says the opportunities for Iran are huge — if only the country can rejoin the global economy as promised.

"Certainly we'd like a parliament that will open up communications with the outside world," she says. "When the parliament is cooperating with the government there is more peace, and peace is good for business.

Minaei's wish is to see all the sanctions finally lifted so she can expand her business of promoting Iranian cuisine internationally. She includes the U.S. in that wish, but doesn't expect it to come true overnight. As one of Iran's most successful businesswomen, she can't even get a visa to visit her sisters in America, let alone do business there.