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Houston Texans Coach Bill O'Brien (center) Chief Operating Officer Cal McNair (right) and Houston Chronicle reporter Brian Smith take the ALS Ice Bucket Challenge Thursday to raise money for the ALS Association. David J. Phillip/AP hide caption

itoggle caption David J. Phillip/AP

Surgeons at Methodist University Hospital in Memphis prepare to transplant a liver in 2010. Karen Pulfer Focht/The Commercial Appeal/Landov hide caption

itoggle caption Karen Pulfer Focht/The Commercial Appeal/Landov

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One of the scariest parts of advanced macular degeneration can be losing the ability to read facial expressions. Maria Pavlova /iStockphoto hide caption

itoggle caption Maria Pavlova /iStockphoto

Among heroin addicts who are able to quit, 40 to 60 percent relapse within the first year — many within the first weeks of release from a treatment program. Diane Diederich/iStockphoto hide caption

itoggle caption Diane Diederich/iStockphoto

Truvada, an FDA-approved drug to help prevent HIV infection, is among the AIDS drugs that fill pharmacy shelves at the Whitman-Walker clinic, a Washington, D.C., community health center. Astrid Riecken/MCT/Landov hide caption

itoggle caption Astrid Riecken/MCT/Landov

In 1995, amid an Ebola outbreak, Zairian Red Cross personnel picked up sick people and bodies left on the streets of Kikwit, 250 miles from the capital Kinshasa. Jean-Marc Bouju/AP hide caption

itoggle caption Jean-Marc Bouju/AP

Truvada has been around for a decade as a treatment for people who are already HIV-positive. In the last few years, it has also been shown to prevent new infections, and New York officials are embracing the pill as a way to prevent the spread of AIDS. Justin Sullivan/Getty Images hide caption

itoggle caption Justin Sullivan/Getty Images

Ordinary spoons vary widely in size and shape. Confusing regular spoons for accurate measurements of teaspoons and tablespoons can lead to accidental overdoses. Meredith Rizzo/NPR hide caption

itoggle caption Meredith Rizzo/NPR

Human immunodeficiency virus Type 1 inserts its genetic material into the DNA of human cells, turning them into little HIV factories. Eye of Science/Science Source hide caption

itoggle caption Eye of Science/Science Source

Bryan McDonel and his father, Mike, both served multiple tours in Iraq with the National Guard. Bryan was first prescribed painkillers before his deployment, and his dependence on medication prompted a downward spiral. Quil Lawrence/NPR hide caption

itoggle caption Quil Lawrence/NPR

The heart beats in a mouse embryo grown with stem cells made from blood. Now the research that claimed a simple acid solution could be used to create those cells has been retracted. Courtesy of Haruko Obokata hide caption

itoggle caption Courtesy of Haruko Obokata