Jackson Pollock cooks with his wife, the artist Lee Krasner, and his mother, Stella Pollock, in the kitchen of his home in Springs, in East Hampton, N.Y., 1950. Courtesy Pollock‑Krasner House and Study Center hide caption

itoggle caption Courtesy Pollock‑Krasner House and Study Center

Toni Morrison won a Pulitzer Prize for fiction in 1988 for her novel Beloved. In 1993 she became the first African-American woman to win the Nobel Prize for literature. And in 2012, President Obama awarded Morrison the Presidential Medal of Freedom. Michael Lionstar/Knopf/AP hide caption

itoggle caption Michael Lionstar/Knopf/AP