American Speeches

Political Oratory from Abraham Lincoln to Bill Clinton

by Ted Widmer

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Political Oratory from Abraham Lincoln to Bill Clinton
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Ted Widmer

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Title
American Speeches
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Political Oratory from Abraham Lincoln to Bill Clinton
Author
Ted Widmer

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Book Summary

Collects the unabridged texts of important speeches, including Patrick Henry's "liberty or death" speech, women's rights speeches by Elizabeth Cady Stanton, and Grover Cleveland's address dedicating the Statue of Liberty.

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Excerpt: American Speeches

American Speeches

POLITICAL ORATORY FROM ABRAHAM LINCOLN TO BILL CLINTON


THE LIBRARY OF AMERICA

Copyright © 2006 Literary Classics of the United States, Inc.
All right reserved.

ISBN: 978-1-931082-98-3

Contents

Abraham Lincoln: Speech on Reconstruction  Washington, D.C., April 11, 1865.................................................................................................1Thaddeus Stevens: Speech in Congress on Reconstruction  Washington, D.C., December 18, 1865.................................................................................6Sojourner Truth: Speech at Meeting Commemorating Emancipation  Boston, January 1, 1871......................................................................................19Susan B. Anthony: Is It a Crime for a Citizen of the United States to Vote?  Monroe County, N.Y., March-April 1873; Ontario County, N.Y., May-June 1873.....................22Robert Brown Elliott: Speech in Congress on the Civil Rights Bill  Washington, D.C., January 6, 1874........................................................................48Benjamin F. Butler: Speech in Congress on the Civil Rights Bill  Washington, D.C., January 7, 1874..........................................................................67Frederick Douglass: Oration in Memory of Abraham Lincoln  Washington, D.C., April 14, 1876..................................................................................74Robert G. Ingersoll: Speech Nominating James G. Blaine  Cincinnati, June 15, 1876...........................................................................................85Chief Joseph: Reply to General Howard  Bear Paw Mountains, Montana Territory, October 5, 1877...............................................................................88Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr.: Memorial Day Address  Keene, N.H., May 30, 1884.................................................................................................89Grover Cleveland: Address at the Dedication of the Statue of Liberty  New York City, October 28, 1886.......................................................................98Elizabeth Cady Stanton: The Solitude of Self  Washington, D.C., January 18, 1892............................................................................................99Ida B. Wells: Lynch Law in All Its Phases  Boston, February 13, 1893........................................................................................................110John Peter Altgeld: Labor Day Address  Chicago, September 8, 1893...........................................................................................................129Booker T. Washington: Address at the Atlanta Exposition  September 18, 1895.................................................................................................137William Jennings Bryan: Speech to the Democratic National Convention  Chicago, July 9, 1896.................................................................................142Theodore Roosevelt: The Strenuous Life  Chicago, April 10, 1899.............................................................................................................150Carl Schurz: The Policy of Imperialism  Chicago, October 17, 1899...........................................................................................................161Theodore Roosevelt: The Man with the Muck-Rake  Washington, D.C., April 14, 1906............................................................................................195Mary Church Terrell: What It Means to be Colored in the Capital of the United States  Washington, D.C., October 10, 1906....................................................204Theodore Roosevelt: The New Nationalism  Osawatomie, Kansas, August 31, 1910................................................................................................213John Jay Chapman: Speech at Prayer Meeting  Coatesville, Pennsylvania, August 18, 1912......................................................................................229Woodrow Wilson: First Inaugural Address  Washington, D.C., March 4, 1913....................................................................................................233Woodrow Wilson: Address to Congress on War with Germany  Washington, D.C., April 2, 1917....................................................................................238Robert M. La Follette, Sr.: Speech in the Senate on Free Speech in Wartime  Washington, D.C., October 6, 1917...............................................................247Carrie Chapman Catt: Address to Woman Suffrage Convention  Washington, D.C., December 1917..................................................................................286Eugene V. Debs: Speech to the Court  Cleveland, September 14, 1918..........................................................................................................308Woodrow Wilson: Address to the Senate on the League of Nations  Washington, D.C., July 10, 1919.............................................................................314Henry Cabot Lodge: Speech in the Senate on the League of Nations  Washington, D.C., August 12, 1919.........................................................................327Herbert Hoover: "Rugged Individualism" Speech  New York City, October 22, 1928..............................................................................................356Franklin D. Roosevelt: Speech to the Democratic National Convention  Chicago, July 2, 1932..................................................................................373Franklin D. Roosevelt: Speech to the Commonwealth Club  San Francisco, September 23, 1932...................................................................................384Franklin D. Roosevelt: First Inaugural Address  Washington, D.C., March 4, 1933.............................................................................................398Huey Long: Every Man a King  Washington, D.C., February 23, 1934............................................................................................................403Franklin D. Roosevelt: Speech to the Democratic National Convention  Philadelphia, June 27, 1936............................................................................415Franklin D. Roosevelt: Second Inaugural Address  Washington, D.C., January 20, 1937.........................................................................................421Franklin D. Roosevelt: "Arsenal of Democracy" Fireside Chat  Washington, D.C., December 29, 1940............................................................................426Franklin D. Roosevelt: Eighth Annual Address to Congress Washington, D.C., January 6, 1941..................................................................................437Franklin D. Roosevelt: Address to Congress on War with Japan  Washington, D.C., December 8, 1941............................................................................447George S. Patton: Speech to Third Army Troops  England, Spring 1944.........................................................................................................449Dwight D. Eisenhower: Address to the Allied Expeditionary Forces  England, June 6, 1944.....................................................................................453Harry S. Truman: Statement on the Atomic Bomb  Washington, D.C., August 6, 1945.............................................................................................454J. Robert Oppenheimer: Speech to Los Alamos Scientists  Los Alamos, N.M., November 2, 1945..................................................................................458George C. Marshall: Speech at Harvard University  Cambridge, Massachusetts, June 5, 1947....................................................................................472Hubert H. Humphrey: Speech to the Democratic National Convention,  Philadelphia, July 14, 1948..............................................................................476Harry S. Truman: Speech to the Democratic National Convention  Philadelphia, July 15, 1948..................................................................................480Margaret Chase Smith: Declaration of Conscience  Washington, D.C., June 1, 1950.............................................................................................487William Faulkner: Nobel Prize Address  Stockholm, December 10, 1950.........................................................................................................493Douglas MacArthur: Address to Congress  Washington, D.C., April 19, 1951....................................................................................................495Richard M. Nixon: "Checkers" Speech  Hollywood, California, September 23, 1952..............................................................................................504Martin Luther King, Jr.: Speech to the Montgomery Improvement Association  Montgomery, Alabama, December 5, 1955............................................................516Dwight D. Eisenhower: Second Inaugural Address  Washington, D.C., January 21, 1957..........................................................................................520John F. Kennedy: Speech to the Greater Houston Ministerial Association  Houston, September 12, 1960.........................................................................525Dwight D. Eisenhower: Farewell Address  Washington, D.C., January 17, 1961..................................................................................................529John F. Kennedy: Inaugural Address  Washington, D.C., January 20, 1961......................................................................................................535John F. Kennedy: Address at American University  Washington, D.C., June 10, 1963............................................................................................539John F. Kennedy: Address to the Nation on Civil Rights Washington, D.C., June 11, 1963......................................................................................548John F. Kennedy: Speech in the Rudolph Wilde Platz  Berlin, June 26, 1963...................................................................................................554Martin Luther King, Jr.: Address at the March on Washington  August 28, 1963................................................................................................556Betty Friedan: The Crisis in Women's Identity  San Francisco, 1964..........................................................................................................561Malcolm X: The Ballot or the Bullet  Cleveland, April 3, 1964...............................................................................................................574Barry Goldwater: Speech to the Republican National Convention  San Francisco, July 16, 1964.................................................................................595Ronald Reagan: Speech on Behalf of Barry Goldwater  Los Angeles, October 27, 1964...........................................................................................604Mario Savio: Speech in Sproul Plaza  Berkeley, California, December 2, 1964.................................................................................................616Martin Luther King, Jr.: Nobel Prize Address  Oslo, December 10, 1964.......................................................................................................619Lyndon B. Johnson: Address to Congress on Voting Rights  Washington, D.C., March 15, 1965...................................................................................623Lyndon B. Johnson: Address at Howard University  Washington, D.C., June 4, 1965.............................................................................................633Robert F. Kennedy: Address at the University of Cape Town  South Africa, June 6, 1966.......................................................................................641Martin Luther King, Jr.: Speech on the Vietnam War  New York City, April 4, 1967............................................................................................651Martin Luther King, Jr.: Sermon at National Cathedral  Washington, D.C., March 31, 1968.....................................................................................668Martin Luther King, Jr.: Speech at Mason Temple  Memphis, April 3, 1968.....................................................................................................681Robert F. Kennedy: Remarks on the Assassination of Martin Luther King  Indianapolis, April 4, 1968..........................................................................693Barbara Jordan: Statement to the House Judiciary Committee  Washington, D.C., July 25, 1974.................................................................................695Richard M. Nixon: Remarks on Leaving the White House  Washington, D.C., August 9, 1974......................................................................................700Jimmy Carter: Address to the Nation on Energy Policy  Washington, D.C., July 15, 1979.......................................................................................705Edward M. Kennedy: Speech to the Democratic National Convention  New York City, August 12, 1980.............................................................................715Ronald Reagan: Address to Members of Parliament  London, June 8, 1982.......................................................................................................724Ronald Reagan: Address at Pointe-du-Hoc  Normandy, June 6, 1984.............................................................................................................736Jesse Jackson: Speech to the Democratic National Convention  San Francisco, July 17, 1984...................................................................................741Ronald Reagan: Address to the Nation on the Challenger Disaster  Washington, D.C., January 28, 1986.........................................................................754Ronald Reagan: Speech at the Brandenburg Gate  Berlin, June 12, 1987........................................................................................................756William J. Clinton: Speech at Mason Temple  Memphis, November 13, 1993......................................................................................................763William J. Clinton: Speech at Central High School  Little Rock, Arkansas, September 25, 1997................................................................................773Biographical Notes..........................................................................................................................................................783Note on the Texts...........................................................................................................................................................801Notes.......................................................................................................................................................................810Index.......................................................................................................................................................................859

Chapter One

ABRAHAM LINCOLN

Speech on Reconstruction

Washington, D.C., April 11, 1865

We meet this evening, not in sorrow, but in gladness of heart. The evacuation of Petersburg and Richmond, and the surrender of the principal insurgent army, give hope of a righteous and speedy peace whose joyous expression can not be restrained. In the midst of this, however, He, from Whom all blessings flow, must not be forgotten. A call for a national thanksgiving is being prepared, and will be duly promulgated. Nor must those whose harder part gives us the cause of rejoicing, be overlooked. Their honors must not be parcelled out with others. I myself, was near the front, and had the high pleasure of transmitting much of the good news to you; but no part of the honor, for plan or execution, is mine. To Gen. Grant, his skilful officers, and brave men, all belongs. The gallant Navy stood ready, but was not in reach to take active part.

By these recent successes the re-inauguration of the national authority-reconstruction-which has had a large share of thought from the first, is pressed much more closely upon our attention. It is fraught with great difficulty. Unlike the case of a war between independent nations, there is no authorized organ for us to treat with. No one man has authority to give up the rebellion for any other man. We simply must begin with, and mould from, disorganized and discordant elements. Nor is it a small additional embarrassment that we, the loyal people, differ among ourselves as to the mode, manner, and means of reconstruction.

As a general rule, I abstain from reading the reports of attacks upon myself, wishing not to be provoked by that to which I can not properly offer an answer. In spite of this precaution, however, it comes to my knowledge that I am much censured for some supposed agency in setting up, and seeking to sustain, the new State Government of Louisiana. In this I have done just so much as, and no more than, the public knows. In the Annual Message of Dec. 1863 and accompanying Proclamation, I presented a plan of reconstruction (as the phrase goes) which, I promised, if adopted by any State, should be acceptable to, and sustained by, the Executive government of the nation. I distinctly stated that this was not the only plan which might possibly be acceptable; and I also distinctly protested that the Executive claimed no right to say when, or whether members should be admitted to seats in Congress from such States. This plan was, in advance, submitted to the then Cabinet, and distinctly approved by every member of it. One of them suggested that I should then, and in that connection, apply the Emancipation Proclamation to the theretofore excepted parts of Virginia and Louisiana; that I should drop the suggestion about apprenticeship for freed-people, and that I should omit the protest against my own power, in regard to the admission of members to Congress; but even he approved every part and parcel of the plan which has since been employed or touched by the action of Louisiana. The new constitution of Louisiana, declaring emancipation for the whole State, practically applies the Proclamation to the part previously excepted. It does not adopt apprenticeship for freed-people; and it is silent, as it could not well be otherwise, about the admission of members to Congress. So that, as it applies to Louisiana, every member of the Cabinet fully approved the plan. The Message went to Congress, and I received many commendations of the plan, written and verbal; and not a single objection to it, from any professed emancipationist, came to my knowledge, until after the news reached Washington that the people of Louisiana had begun to move in accordance with it. From about July 1862, I had corresponded with different persons, supposed to be interested, seeking a reconstruction of a State government for Louisiana. When the Message of 1863, with the plan before mentioned, reached New-Orleans, Gen. Banks wrote me that he was confident the people, with his military co-operation, would reconstruct, substantially on that plan. I wrote him, and some of them to try it; they tried it, and the result is known. Such only has been my agency in getting up the Louisiana government. As to sustaining it, my promise is out, as before stated. But, as bad promises are better broken than kept, I shall treat this as a bad promise, and break it, whenever I shall be convinced that keeping it is adverse to the public interest. But I have not yet been so convinced.

I have been shown a letter on this subject, supposed to be an able one, in which the writer expresses regret that my mind has not seemed to be definitely fixed on the question whether the seceded States, so called, are in the Union or out of it. It would perhaps, add astonishment to his regret, were he to learn that since I have found professed Union men endeavoring to make that question, I have purposely forborne any public expression upon it. As appears to me that question has not been, nor yet is, a practically material one, and that any discussion of it, while it thus remains practically immaterial, could have no effect other than the mischievous one of dividing our friends. As yet, whatever it may hereafter become, that question is bad, as the basis of a controversy, and good for nothing at all-a merely pernicious abstraction.

We all agree that the seceded States, so called, are out of their proper practical relation with the Union; and that the sole object of the government, civil and military, in regard to those States is to again get them into that proper practical relation. I believe it is not only possible, but in fact, easier, to do this, without deciding, or even considering, whether these states have even been out of the Union, than with it. Finding themselves safely at home, it would be utterly immaterial whether they had ever been abroad. Let us all join in doing the acts necessary to restoring the proper practical relations between these states and the Union; and each forever after, innocently indulge his own opinion whether, in doing the acts, he brought the States from without, into the Union, or only gave them proper assistance, they never having been out of it.

The amount of constituency, so to speak, on which the new Louisiana government rests, would be more satisfactory to all, if it contained fifty, thirty, or even twenty thousand, instead of only about twelve thousand, as it does. It is also unsatisfactory to some that the elective franchise is not given to the colored man. I would myself prefer that it were now conferred on the very intelligent, and on those who serve our cause as soldiers. Still the question is not whether the Louisiana government, as it stands, is quite all that is desirable. The question is "Will it be wiser to take it as it is, and help to improve it; or to reject, and disperse it?" "Can Louisiana be brought into proper practical relation with the Union sooner by sustaining, or by discarding her new State Government?"

Some twelve thousand voters in the heretofore slave-state of Louisiana have sworn allegiance to the Union, assumed to be the rightful political power of the State, held elections, organized a State government, adopted a free-state constitution, giving the benefit of public schools equally to black and white, and empowering the Legislature to confer the elective franchise upon the colored man. Their Legislature has already voted to ratify the constitutional amendment recently passed by Congress, abolishing slavery throughout the nation. These twelve thousand persons are thus fully committed to the Union, and to perpetual freedom in the state-committed to the very things, and nearly all the things the nation wants-and they ask the nations recognition, and it's assistance to make good their committal. Now, if we reject, and spurn them, we do our utmost to disorganize and disperse them. We in effect say to the white men "You are worthless, or worse-we will neither help you, nor be helped by you." To the blacks we say "This cup of liberty which these, your old masters, hold to your lips, we will dash from you, and leave you to the chances of gathering the spilled and scattered contents in some vague and undefined when, where, and how." If this course, discouraging and paralyzing both white and black, has any tendency to bring Louisiana into proper practical relations with the Union, I have, so far, been unable to perceive it. If, on the contrary, we recognize, and sustain the new government of Louisiana the converse of all this is made true. We encourage the hearts, and nerve the arms of the twelve thousand to adhere to their work, and argue for it, and proselyte for it, and fight for it, and feed it, and grow it, and ripen it to a complete success. The colored man too, in seeing all united for him, is inspired with vigilance, and energy, and daring, to the same end. Grant that he desires the elective franchise, will he not attain it sooner by saving the already advanced steps toward it, than by running backward over them? Concede that the new government of Louisiana is only to what it should be as the egg is to the fowl, we shall sooner have the fowl by hatching the egg than by smashing it? Again, if we reject Louisiana, we also reject one vote in favor of the proposed amendment to the national constitution. To meet this proposition, it has been argued that no more than three fourths of those States which have not attempted secession are necessary to validly ratify the amendment. I do not commit myself against this, further than to say that such a ratification would be questionable, and sure to be persistently questioned; while a ratification by three fourths of all the States would be unquestioned and unquestionable.

I repeat the question. "Can Louisiana be brought into proper practical relation with the Union sooner by sustaining or by discarding her new State Government?"

What has been said of Louisiana will apply generally to other States. And yet so great peculiarities pertain to each state; and such important and sudden changes occur in the same state; and, withal, so new and unprecedented is the whole case, that no exclusive, and inflexible plan can safely be prescribed as to details and colatterals. Such exclusive, and inflexible plan, would surely become a new entanglement. Important principles may, and must, be inflexible.

In the present "situation" as the phrase goes, it may be my duty to make some new announcement to the people of the South. I am considering, and shall not fail to act, when satisfied that action will be proper.

Chapter Two

THADDEUS STEVENS

Speech in Congress on Reconstruction

Washington, D.C., December 18, 1865

A candid examination of the power and proper principles of reconstruction can be offensive to no one, and may possibly be profitable by exciting inquiry. One of the suggestions of the message which we are now considering has special reference to this. Perhaps it is the principle most interesting to the people at this time. The President assumes, what no one doubts, that the late rebel States have lost their constitutional relations to the Union, and are incapable of representation in Congress, except by permission of the Government. It matters but little, with this admission, whether you call them States out of the Union, and now conquered territories, or assert that because the Constitution forbids them to do what they did do, that they are therefore only dead as to all national and political action, and will remain so until the Government shall breathe into them the breath of life anew and permit them to occupy their former position. In other words, that they are not out of the Union, but are only dead carcasses lying within the Union. In either case, it is very plain that it requires the action of Congress to enable them to form a State government and send representatives to Congress. Nobody, I believe, pretends that with their old constitutions and frames of government they can be permitted to claim their old rights under the Constitution. They have torn their constitutional States into atoms, and built on their foundations fabrics of a totally different character. Dead men cannot raise themselves. Dead States cannot restore their own existence "as it was." Whose especial duty is it to do it? In whom does the Constitution place the power? Not in the judicial branch of Government, for it only adjudicates and does not prescribe laws. Not in the Executive, for he only executes and cannot make laws. Not in the Commander-in- Chief of the armies, for he can only hold them under military rule until the sovereign legislative power of the conqueror shall give them law.

There is fortunately no difficulty in solving the question. There are two provisions in the Constitution, under one of which the case must fall. The fourth article says:

"New States may be admitted by the Congress into this Union."

In my judgment this is the controlling provision in this case. Unless the law of nations is a dead letter, the late war between two acknowledged belligerents severed their original compacts, and broke all the ties that bound them together. The future condition of the conquered power depends on the will of the conqueror. They must come in as new States or remain as conquered provinces. Congress-the Senate and House of Representatives, with the concurrence of the President-is the only power that can act in the matter. But suppose, as some dreaming theorists imagine, that these States have never been out of the Union, but have only destroyed their State governments so as to be incapable of political action; then the fourth section of the fourth article applies, which says:

"The United States shall guaranty to every State in this Union a republican form of government."

Who is the United States? Not the judiciary; not the President; but the sovereign power of the people, exercised through their representatives in Congress, with the concurrence of the Executive. It means the political Government-the concurrent action of both branches of Congress and the Executive. The separate action of each amounts to nothing, either in admitting new States or guarantying republican governments to lapsed or outlawed States. Whence springs the preposterous idea that either the President, or the Senate, or the House of Representatives, acting separately, can determine the right of States to send members or Senators to the Congress of the Union?

To prove that they are and for four years have been out of the Union for all legal purposes, and being now conquered, subject to the absolute disposal of Congress, I will suggest a few ideas and adduce a few authorities. If the so-called "confederate States of America" were an independent belligerent, and were so acknowledged by the United States and by Europe, or had assumed and maintained an attitude which entitled them to be considered and treated as a belligerent, then, during such time, they were precisely in the condition of a foreign nation with whom we were at war; nor need their independence as a nation be acknowledged by us to produce that effect. In the able opinion delivered by that accomplished and loyal jurist, Mr. Justice Grier, in the prize cases, all the law on these points is collected and clearly stated. (2 Black, page 66.) Speaking of civil wars, and following Vattel, he says:

"When the party in rebellion occupy and hold in a hostile manner a certain portion of territory; have declared their independence; have cast off their allegiance; have organized armies; have commenced hostilities against their former sovereign, the world acknowledges them as belligerents, and the contest a war."

And

"The parties belligerent in a public war are independent nations. But it is not necessary, to constitute war, that both parties should be acknowledged as independent nations or foreign States. A war may exist where one of the belligerents claims sovereign rights as against the other."

The idea that the States could not and did not make war because the Constitution forbids it, and that this must be treated as a war of individuals, is a very injurious and groundless fallacy. Individuals cannot make war. They may commit murder, but that is no war. Communities, societies, States, make war, Phillimore says, (volume three, page 68:)

"War between private individuals who are members of a society cannot exist. The use of force in such a case is trespass and not war."

(Continues...)