Discusses the United States' 1943 plan to launch a two-year invasion of Japan, using newly declassified American and Japanese internal documents that provide specifics of the military tactics and weaponry meant to be used.
The atom bombs dropped on Japan in 1945 killed — by some estimates — more than 200,000 people. In Hell To Pay, military historian D.M. Giangreco argues that the alternative, a land invasion of Japan, would have been many times more deadly. Japanese estimates, Giangreco says, set the figure at 20 million.