Lena Horne (photographed in the 1950s) broke barriers for African-Americans in film and television, as well as on stage. Hulton Archive/Getty Images hide caption

itoggle caption Hulton Archive/Getty Images

Mahalia Jackson sings at a Prayer Pilgrimage for Freedom in May 1957. Paul Schutzer; Time & Live Pictures/Getty Images hide caption

itoggle caption Paul Schutzer; Time & Live Pictures/Getty Images