Sahya Idriss, a service provider at the health clinic in Minjibir, carries a vial of the polio vaccine. David Gilkey/NPR hide caption

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At Polio's Epicenter, Vaccinators Battle Chaos And Indifference
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During the peak of the polio epidemic in the U.S., some hospital wards even had large, room-like iron lungs where multiple children lived. Courtesy of Boston Children's Hospital Archive hide caption

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Wiping Out Polio: How The U.S. Snuffed Out A Killer
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Women and their children wait for medication and instructions on how to use it at the clinic in Dareta, Nigeria. Treating children with high levels of lead is a painstaking process that works only if their environment at home is free from lead. David Gilkey/NPR hide caption

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Fallout From Financial Crisis: Thousands Of Nigerian Kids Poisoned By Lead
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Women and their children wait for medication and instructions on how to use it at the clinic in Dareta, Nigeria. Treating children with high levels of lead is a painstaking process that works only if their environment at home is free from lead. David Gilkey/NPR hide caption

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In Nigerian Gold Rush, Lead Poisons Thousands Of Children
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Increased Cases Of Polio Reported In Nigeria
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The Durban Children's hospital opened in 1931, as a facility for all races, but tensions during the apartheid era forced it to close in the 1980s. Courtesy of KwaZulu-Natal Children's Hospital hide caption

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South African Children's Hospital Closed Under Apartheid To Reopen
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Doreen Ramogola-Masire, an obstetrician-gynecologist in Botswana, hopes that a simple, quick screen for cervical cancer with vinegar will catch the disease early and save women's lives. Jason Beaubien/NPR hide caption

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Botswana Doctors Stop Cervical Cancer With A Vinegar Swab
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A doctor examines chest X-rays at a tuberculosis clinic in Gugulethu, Cape Town, South Africa in late 2007. The number of TB cases that don't respond to both first- and second-line medications is rising worldwide. Karin Schermbrucker /AP hide caption

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A mobile clinic set up to test students for HIV is parked near Madwaleni High School in Mtubatuba, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa on March 8, 2011. Parts of the South African province have HIV rates that are more than twice the national average. Stephane de Sakutin/AFP/Getty Images hide caption

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Amid An AIDS Epidemic, South Africa Battles Another Foe: Tuberculosis
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Health care workers in South Africa speak to residents during a door-to-door AIDS awareness campaign, part of a series of prevention efforts that has helped lower the country's HIV infection rate. Mujahid Safodien /Reuters /Landov hide caption

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Prevention Programs Curb New HIV Infections In South Africa
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Anti-AIDS posters hang in the Eshowe public health clinic in South Africa's Kwazulu-Natal province. Clinicians there are hoping to slow the spread of HIV by getting more people treatment. Jason Beaubien /NPR hide caption

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After Years Lost, South Africa Rejuvenates HIV Plan
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Drag queens at an outdoor restaurant in Copacabana incorporate safe sex messages into a show of lip-synced songs and risque jokes. Jason Beaubien/NPR hide caption

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Activists Fear Brazil's Triumph Over HIV Has Fizzled
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Longtime AIDS activist Dr. Ashraf Grimwood says South Africa has made huge strides in confronting HIV. But he worries that giving anti-retroviral drugs to healthy people could have negative consequences in the long term. Jason Beaubien/NPR hide caption

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