A simulation from the Neitz lab of what colorblindness looks like, with normal color vision on the left and red-green colorblindness on the right. Courtesy of Neitz Laboratory hide caption

itoggle caption Courtesy of Neitz Laboratory

When combined with results of other neurological tests, and in the context of a thorough medical history, atrophy of the brain (shown here in an MRI scan) sometimes indicates Alzheimer's. Simon Fraser/Science Source hide caption

itoggle caption Simon Fraser/Science Source

Jonathan Keleher talks with a colleague, Rafael Wainhaus, at work. Keleher was born without a cerebellum, but his brain has developed work-arounds for solving problems of balance and abstract thought. Ellen Webber for NPR hide caption

itoggle caption Ellen Webber for NPR

Jonathan Keleher is one of a handful of people who have lived their entire lives without a cerebellum. Ellen Webber for NPR hide caption

itoggle caption Ellen Webber for NPR

Prion protein can be infectious, spreading from cell to cell in the brain. Here four nerve cells in a mouse illustrate how infectious prion protein moves within cells along neurites — wire-like connections the nerve cells use for communicating with adjacent cells. Science Source hide caption

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Eastman Chemical went a step beyond calling Tritan plastic BPA-free, setting off a legal challenge. Eastman hide caption

itoggle caption Eastman

By measuring activity in different parts of the brain, neuroscientsts can get a sense of how some people will respond to treatments. John Lund/Getty Images hide caption

itoggle caption John Lund/Getty Images

Barotrauma can cause a fish's eyes to pop out of its head and its stomach to be pushed out of its mouth, according to Chris Lowe, a marine scientist at California State, Long Beach. Jon Hamilton/NPR hide caption

itoggle caption Jon Hamilton/NPR

Katie Clapp shares a laugh with her son Andy Tranfaglia, 25, at their home in West Newbury, Mass. Andy has a rare genetic condition called fragile X syndrome. Ellen Webber for NPR hide caption

itoggle caption Ellen Webber for NPR