Fernando Aguilar plays with his 8-year-old son Isaac. He worries that Isaac isn't enrolled in the gifted and talented program in Houston. Laura Isensee/Houston Public Media hide caption

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Molly Pollak pages through a book of letters from her former students. Alex Welsh for NPR hide caption

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Principal Jessica Nauiokas (left) with social worker Gabriella Cassandra at Haven Academy in the Bronx, N.Y. Beth Fertig/WNYC hide caption

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Jose Arriaga waits for his friends under the stairs at the end of the school day at Booker T. Washington High School. Jose began his freshman year this semester. Kenneth M. Ruggiano for NPR hide caption

itoggle caption Kenneth M. Ruggiano for NPR

Shaun Harper of the University of Pennsylvania is a co-author of the new report. Stuart Goldenberg/University of Pennsylvania hide caption

itoggle caption Stuart Goldenberg/University of Pennsylvania