Fake medicines are a 21st-century scourge, but they've been around for a long time. This advertising trade card for snake oil was printed in New York City around 1880. Transcendental Graphics/Getty Images hide caption

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Work partners Jon Chintanaroad (left) and Mike Prestano are all smiles now, but founding a tech startup together threatened their friendship — and their business. April Dembosky/KQED hide caption

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Science-based guidelines say there's no benefit to getting an EKG of heart activity before routine cataract surgery — even if the patient is old. But most doctors order such tests anyway. Bull's Eye/ImageZoo/Corbis hide caption

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