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On Apple's Birthday, A Brief History Of Computing

Today is Apple's 35th anniversary. But of course, well before Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak partnered up, other innovators paved the way. Their breakthroughs, though bulky and awkward to a modern eye, were technological marvels that led to the development of today's ubiquitous personal — and pocket-sized — computers. A gallery at Life follows this path from abacus to Apple.

This weaving loom, designed by Joseph Marie Jacquard in 1801, was the first machine to use punched cards to control a series of sequences — a key step in the development of computer programming. Henry Guttmann/Getty Images/Life hide caption

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Henry Guttmann/Getty Images/Life

This "Analytical Engine" was conceived by English mathematician Charles Babbage in 1837. It was version 2.0 of his "Difference Engine," the first successful automatic calculator. SSPL/Getty Images/Life hide caption

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SSPL/Getty Images/Life

This "Analytical Engine" was conceived by English mathematician Charles Babbage in 1837. It was version 2.0 of his "Difference Engine," the first successful automatic calculator.

SSPL/Getty Images/Life

Two men operate the enormous UNIVAC (UNIVersal Automatic Computer) in 1960. With the arrival of UNIVAC, which first rolled out in 1951, computers were no longer reserved for the use of governments alone and became available to businesses. Hulton Archive/Getty Images/Life hide caption

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Hulton Archive/Getty Images/Life

Two men operate the enormous UNIVAC (UNIVersal Automatic Computer) in 1960. With the arrival of UNIVAC, which first rolled out in 1951, computers were no longer reserved for the use of governments alone and became available to businesses.

Hulton Archive/Getty Images/Life

This 1958 model of the first working integrated circuit, crudely soldered as it was, represented a huge breakthrough. It paved the path for smaller, more affordable computers. Fotosearch/Getty Images/Life hide caption

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Fotosearch/Getty Images/Life

This 1958 model of the first working integrated circuit, crudely soldered as it was, represented a huge breakthrough. It paved the path for smaller, more affordable computers.

Fotosearch/Getty Images/Life

This early version of the mouse (named for its tail-like cord) was assembled by Douglas Engelbart and his Stanford team in 1963. Getty Images/Life hide caption

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Getty Images/Life

This early version of the mouse (named for its tail-like cord) was assembled by Douglas Engelbart and his Stanford team in 1963.

Getty Images/Life

Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak formed Apple Computer Co. on April Fool's Day, 1976. The Apple I, introduced soon after, was the first computer to come with a fully assembled motherboard (central printed circuit board). It sold for $666.66. Science & Society Picture Library / Contributor/Life hide caption

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Science & Society Picture Library / Contributor/Life

Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak formed Apple Computer Co. on April Fool's Day, 1976. The Apple I, introduced soon after, was the first computer to come with a fully assembled motherboard (central printed circuit board). It sold for $666.66.

Science & Society Picture Library / Contributor/Life