Image of a mini-kidney formed in a dish from human induced pluripotent stem cells. Minoru Takasato/Nature hide caption

itoggle caption Minoru Takasato/Nature

The model of a DNA stands on a desk during a press conference to announce the winners of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2015 on Wednesday at the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in Stockholm. Sweden's Tomas Lindahl, Paul Modrich of the US and Turkish-American Aziz Sancar won the Nobel Chemistry Prize for work on how cells repair damaged DNA. Jonathan Nackstrand/AFP/Getty Images hide caption

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The "Super-Kamiokande" neutrino detector operated by the University of Tokyo's Institute for Cosmic Ray Research helped scientist Takaaki Kajita win a share of the Nobel Prize in Physics, along with Canadian Arthur B. McDonald. Kyodo /Landov hide caption

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Adam Cole/NPR

Modern, domesticated rice comes in a range of colors, usually described as white, red and black. But collectors have never found black grains in more than a thousand samples of wild rice stored in gene banks. Now geneticists have traced this rare grain's origin and spread. Courtesy of Takeshi Ebitani/Takuya Yamaguchi. hide caption

itoggle caption Courtesy of Takeshi Ebitani/Takuya Yamaguchi.

Using an instrument they've named the HOLODEC, for Holographic Detector for Clouds, scientists can now see in fine detail the way air and water droplets mix at a cloud's wispiest edge. iStockphoto hide caption

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A surgical team at Sooam Biotech in Seoul, South Korea, injects cloned embryos into the uterus of an anesthetized dog. Rob Stein/NPR hide caption

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Ken (left) and Henry were created using DNA plucked from a skin cell of Melvin, the beloved pet of Paula and Phillip Dupont of Lafayette, La. Edmund D. Fountain for NPR hide caption

itoggle caption Edmund D. Fountain for NPR

The large British study, begun in 1958, tracked the diet, habits and emotional and physical health of thousands of people from childhood through midlife. iStockphoto hide caption

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In 1954, Dr. Frederick C. Robbins, then chief of pediatrics and contagious diseases at Cleveland Metropolitan General Hospital, was one of three winners of that year's Nobel Prize in medicine. The scientists' work, which led to a vaccine against polio, was performed in human fetal cells. AP hide caption

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