With many young talents under his tutelage, Art Blakey has often been called the father of hard bop. David Referns/Redferns hide caption

itoggle caption David Referns/Redferns

Conguero Poncho Sanchez gave Frank Foster's swing classic, "Shiny Stockings," a new identity as a mambo. Charley Gallay/Getty Images Entertainment hide caption

itoggle caption Charley Gallay/Getty Images Entertainment

Joao Gilberto was one of the key bossa nova pioneers. Hulton Archive/Getty Images hide caption

itoggle caption Hulton Archive/Getty Images

Wayne Shorter's 2003 album Alegria finds the saxophonist and composer matching his quartet with orchestral textures. Thomas Dorn/Verve Records hide caption

itoggle caption Thomas Dorn/Verve Records

The Saxophone Colossus (that's Sonny Rollins at left) played on The Rolling Stones' "Waiting on a Friend." Photo Illustration: Lars Gotrich/Photos: Rick Diamond/Getty Images, Miguel Palacios/Cover. hide caption

itoggle caption Photo Illustration: Lars Gotrich/Photos: Rick Diamond/Getty Images, Miguel Palacios/Cover.