Women participate in a breast cancer fund-raising in Denver in 2011. Despite decades of awareness campaigns, the survival rate for women with metastatic breast cancer hasn't improved. Helen H. Richardson/Denver Post/AP hide caption

itoggle caption Helen H. Richardson/Denver Post/AP

Caltech biochemical engineer Frances Arnold was awarded a National Medal of Technology and Innovation by President Obama in 2013. Jason Reed/Reuters/Landov hide caption

itoggle caption Jason Reed/Reuters/Landov

Researcher Svante Pääbo, was able to extract a complete genome from this ancient human leg bone. Bence Viola/Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology hide caption

itoggle caption Bence Viola/Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology

Isabella Beukes, of Santa Rosa, Calif., has been legally blind for more than 40 years. An experimental treatment derived from embryonic stem cells seems to have enabled her now to see not just color but also some shapes. Tim Hussin for NPR hide caption

itoggle caption Tim Hussin for NPR

Insulin is produced by the green cells that are in clusters about the same size as the islets in the human pancreas. The red cells are producing another metabolic hormone, glucagon, that prevents low blood sugar. Harvard University hide caption

itoggle caption Harvard University

Randen Patterson left a research career in physiology at U.C. Davis when funding got too tight. He now owns a grocery store in Guinda, Calif. Max Whittaker/Prime for NPR hide caption

itoggle caption Max Whittaker/Prime for NPR

Justin McCowan, 39, has Down syndrome and lives at home with his parents in Santa Monica, Calif. Benjamin B. Morris for NPR hide caption

itoggle caption Benjamin B. Morris for NPR

Houston Texans Coach Bill O'Brien (center) Chief Operating Officer Cal McNair (right) and Houston Chronicle reporter Brian Smith take the ALS Ice Bucket Challenge Thursday to raise money for the ALS Association. David J. Phillip/AP hide caption

itoggle caption David J. Phillip/AP

Clear and clean, bubble wrap is well-suited to serve as an array of tiny test tubes. Here a dye solution is injected into the bubbles to measure the hemoglobin concentration in blood. American Chemical Society hide caption

itoggle caption American Chemical Society

The heart beats in a mouse embryo grown with stem cells made from blood. Now the research that claimed a simple acid solution could be used to create those cells has been retracted. Courtesy of Haruko Obokata hide caption

itoggle caption Courtesy of Haruko Obokata

The CRISPR enzyme (green and red) binds to a stretch of double-stranded DNA (purple and red), preparing to snip out the faulty part. Illustration courtesy of Jennifer Doudna/UC Berkeley hide caption

itoggle caption Illustration courtesy of Jennifer Doudna/UC Berkeley

A high-resolution image of the molecular carrier that moves the botulinum toxin from the intestine into the bloodstream. The carrier (silver) creates gaps in the gut lining by grabbing the rope-like molecules (red ribbons) that tether one intestinal cell to the next. Rongsheng Jin, UC Irvine, and Min Dong, Harvard Medical School hide caption

itoggle caption Rongsheng Jin, UC Irvine, and Min Dong, Harvard Medical School

Made for a tight grip: The female penis of an insect species newly discovered in Brazil has spines on it. Courtesy of Current Biology, Yoshizawa et al. hide caption

itoggle caption Courtesy of Current Biology, Yoshizawa et al.

Kent Stephenson, a research participant at the University of Louisville's Kentucky Spinal Cord Injury Research Center, has his level of muscle activity and force measured by Katelyn Gurley. Courtesy of the University of Louisville hide caption

itoggle caption Courtesy of the University of Louisville