A health worker injects a woman with a shot of Depo Provera, a quarterly contraceptive injection, at a health clinic in Busia, Uganda, in 2009. MCT/MCT via Getty Images hide caption

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Many over-the-counter contraceptives contain a spermicide known as nonoxynol-9. Gretchen Cuda Kroen/For NPR hide caption

itoggle caption Gretchen Cuda Kroen/For NPR

Eric Goosby, United States Global AIDS coordinator, says field testing is necessary and urgent to determine if HIV testing-and-treating services are feasible. Brendan Hoffman/Getty Images hide caption

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President Obama marked World AIDS Day Thursday by announcing plans to boost U.S. efforts to fight AIDS at home and abroad. Evan Vucci/AP hide caption

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The latest numbers from CDC show that only 28 percent of the nation's 1.2 million HIV-infected people are getting effective antiviral treatment; effective treatment rates are lowest among African-American men. Robyn Beck/AFP/Getty Images hide caption

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Tokay Geckos, like this one perched on a twig in suburban Quezon City, Philippines, are being hunted and killed to satisfy booming demand for them as an ingredient in alternative medicines. Bullit Marquez/AP hide caption

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Pakistani NGO workers protest at a rally on World AIDS Day in Peshawar in 2006. Tariq Mahmood/AFP/Getty Images hide caption

itoggle caption Tariq Mahmood/AFP/Getty Images

A study of Ugandans found antiretroviral drugs can extend the lifespans of people with HIV to nearly normal lengths. Adek Berry/AFP/Getty Images hide caption

itoggle caption Adek Berry/AFP/Getty Images