A reconstruction of a Neanderthal man (right) based on skull found at the La Ferrassie rock shelter in Dordogne Valley, France. He's face to face with a male Homo sapien. Philippe Plailly & Atelier Daynes/Science Source hide caption

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Science Seeks Clues To Human Health In Neanderthal DNA

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Neanderthals, represented here by a museum's reconstruction, had been living in Eurasia for 200,000 years when Homo sapiens first passed through, and the communities intermingled. The same genes that today play a role in allergies very likely fostered a quick response to local bacteria, viruses and other pathogens, scientists say. Pierre Andrieu/AFP/Getty Images hide caption

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Itchy Eyes? Sneezing? Maybe Blame That Allergy On Neanderthals

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An inside view of this fossil Pseudodon shell shows that the hole made by Homo erectus is exactly at the spot where the muscle attached to the shell. Poking at that spot would force the shell open. Henk Caspers/Naturalis Leiden/The Netherlands hide caption

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Earliest Human Engraving Or Trash From An Ancient Lunch?

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A rendering of Neanderthals cooking and eating. The ancient humans inhabited Europe and western Asia between 230,000 and 29,000 years ago. Mauricio Anton/Science Source hide caption

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Love your hair. Artists' depictions of a Neanderthal man and woman at the Neanderthal Museum in Mettmann, Germany. Martin Meissner/AP hide caption

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Neanderthal Genes Live On In Our Hair And Skin

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Research excavations like these in Siberia's Denisova Cave are yielding clues to the mating choices of early hominids. Bence Viola/Nature hide caption

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Mixing It Up 50,000 Years Ago — Who Slept With Whom?

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A piece of red ochre with a deliberately engraved design is pictured here at Cape Town's Iziko/South African Museum in 2002. The piece was discovered in Blombos Cave near Stilbaai, about 300 kilometers from Cape Town. Anna Ziemenski/AFP/Getty Images hide caption

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