Then-Col. Bashar Assad (left) and Manaf Tlass in 1999. Tlass, now a brigadier general, has reportedly defected and is headed to France. Raed Qutena /AFP/Getty Images hide caption

itoggle caption Raed Qutena /AFP/Getty Images

From the Human Rights Watch report: "Detainees described being folded at the waist and having their head, neck, and legs put into a car tire so that they were immobilized and could not protect themselves from beatings on the back, legs, and head including by batons and whips." Human Rights Watch hide caption

itoggle caption Human Rights Watch