Researchers have used MRI scanners to learn that preemies are born with weak connections in some critical brain networks. iStockphoto hide caption

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Researcher John Clements in the early 1980s, after he figured out that lungs need surfactants to breathe. David Powers/Courtesy of UCSF hide caption

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A baby born too soon continues to develop and grow inside an incubator at the neonatal ward of the Centre Hospitalier de Lens in Lens, northern France. Philippe Huguen/AFP/Getty Images hide caption

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What should parents be told before their premature infants participate in a clinical study? hide caption

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How much oxygen should severely premature infants receive? A study that sought to answer the question has been criticized for not fully informing parents about the risks to their children. hide caption

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Madeline Mann seen shortly after she was born prematurely in in 1989. Weighing 9.9 ounces at birth, she is now an honors student in psychology at Augustana College in Rock Island, Ill. A. Hayashi, Loyola University Medical Center/AP hide caption

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