Marder says immunotherapy has side effects but is less tiring than chemotherapy. Claire Eggers/NPR hide caption

itoggle caption Claire Eggers/NPR

Scientists reprogrammed the common bacterium E. coli so it requires a synthetic amino acid to live. BSIP/UIG via Getty Images hide caption

itoggle caption BSIP/UIG via Getty Images

David Goldhill (second from left) talks with Dan Hilferty of Independence Blue Cross, Kevin Nazemi of Oscar Insurance and Sam Nussbaum of WellPoint in a conversation about health costs. Moderator Avik Roy is at far left. Glen Davis/Forbes hide caption

itoggle caption Glen Davis/Forbes

The new microscopy technique (lower right) brings into focus details of cell structures never seen before with light. Courtesy of A. Honigmann, C. Eggeling and S.W. Hell, MPI Göttinge hide caption

itoggle caption Courtesy of A. Honigmann, C. Eggeling and S.W. Hell, MPI Göttinge

Biohazard suits used to handle dangerous microbes hang in a laboratory at the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases in Fort Detrick, Md. Patrick Semansky/AP hide caption

itoggle caption Patrick Semansky/AP

Dr. Harold Varmus, a Nobel Prize winner, cancer biologist and director of the National Cancer Institute. Manuel Balce Ceneta/AP hide caption

itoggle caption Manuel Balce Ceneta/AP

Victoria Ruiz (left), a postdoctoral fellow in immunology, works with Brianna Delgado, a high school student that she mentors, at the Blaser Lab, inside NYU's Langone Medical Center in New York, NY. Ramsay de Give for NPR hide caption

itoggle caption Ramsay de Give for NPR

Tom Murphy, 56, in his home in Gainesville, Va., was diagnosed with ALS four years ago. An experimental drug seems to have slowed the progression of his disease, he says, though most ALS patients aren't as lucky. T.J. Kirkpatrick for NPR hide caption

itoggle caption T.J. Kirkpatrick for NPR

Randen Patterson left a research career in physiology at U.C. Davis when funding got too tight. He now owns a grocery store in Guinda, Calif. Max Whittaker/Prime for NPR hide caption

itoggle caption Max Whittaker/Prime for NPR

Surgeons use a grid of electrodes laid on a patient's brain. They record electrical activity and can deliver a tiny jolt. Courtesy of Dr. Josef Parvizi hide caption

itoggle caption Courtesy of Dr. Josef Parvizi

Henrietta Lacks and her husband, David, in 1945. Courtesy of the Lacks family hide caption

itoggle caption Courtesy of the Lacks family

A government official in Bali, Indonesia, holds a chicken before administering an injection to cull it as a precautionary measure in April to prevent the spread of bird flu. Firdia Lisnawati/AP hide caption

itoggle caption Firdia Lisnawati/AP