Peshmerga look out from a front-line outpost — a few sandbags, soldiers, and grenades perched on the brow of a hill — to the eastern Iraqi town of Jalula. The Kurdish fighters are grappling with how to combat changing ISIS tactics. Alice Fordham/NPR hide caption

itoggle caption Alice Fordham/NPR

Syrian Kurdish fighter Delkhwaz Sheikh Ahmad, 22, sits with his wife Siham, 23, and their two sons, Dilyar and Ibrahim, at his brother's house on the Turkey-Syria border on Friday. He was preparing to leave for Kobani, Syria, to rejoin the fighting against the Islamic State. Lefteris Pitarakis/ASSOCIATED PRESS hide caption

itoggle caption Lefteris Pitarakis/ASSOCIATED PRESS

Aza Betwata (left) and his brother Mirwan (center) left Holland to join the Kurdish peshmerga fighting against ISIS militants in northern Iraq. Though the brothers come from a family of fighters, Aza had just two days of training — his brother must show him how to strip and clean his rifle. Alice Fordham/NPR hide caption

itoggle caption Alice Fordham/NPR

Thick smoke rises following an airstrike by the U.S.-led coalition in Kobani, Syria, while fighting continued between Syrian Kurds and the militants of the self-proclaimed Islamic State, as seen from Mursitpinar on the outskirts of Suruc, at the Turkey-Syria border on Wednesday. Lefteris Pitarakis/AP hide caption

itoggle caption Lefteris Pitarakis/AP

A black flag belonging to the so-called Islamic State is seen in the Syrian town of Kobani on Thursday, as seen from the Turkey-Syria border near the southeastern town of Suruc. Umit Bektas/Reuters/Landov hide caption

itoggle caption Umit Bektas/Reuters/Landov

Smoke rises from the Syrian town of Kobani, seen from near the Mursitpinar border crossing on the Turkish-Syrian border in the southeastern town of Suruc, Sanliurfa province, on Friday. Murad Sezer/Reuters/Landov hide caption

itoggle caption Murad Sezer/Reuters/Landov

A Kurdish peshmerga soldier who was wounded Sept. 30 in fierce battles in nearby Nineveh province with Islamic State group militants is brought to the Zakho Emergency Hospital in Dahuk, Iraq. Hadi Mizban/The Associated Press hide caption

itoggle caption Hadi Mizban/The Associated Press

Iraqi Kurdish peshmerga fighters take up positions around the town of Gwer in northern Iraq on Sept. 18. The Kurdish militia is aligned with the U.S. in the battle against the Islamic State. Mohamed Messara/EPA/Landov hide caption

itoggle caption Mohamed Messara/EPA/Landov

Syrian Kurds with their livestock wait behind a border fence near the southeastern town of Suruc in Sanliurfa province on Monday. Some 100,000 Kurds have fled from Syria into Turkey amid intense fighting between peshmerga forces and ISIS. Murad Sezer/Reuters/Landov hide caption

itoggle caption Murad Sezer/Reuters/Landov

Prime Minister Ahmet Davutoglu, center, poses with dozens of freed Turkish hostages at the Esenboga Airport in Ankara Saturday. The group was held by militants in northern Iraq for more than three months. Adem Altan/AFP/Getty Images hide caption

itoggle caption Adem Altan/AFP/Getty Images

Smoke rises during airstrikes targeting Islamic State militants at the Mosul Dam outside Mosul, Iraq, on Monday. Kurdish forces say they have retaken the dam, but the militants insist they still have control. Khalid Mohammed/AP hide caption

itoggle caption Khalid Mohammed/AP