The Dzungar army surrenders to Manchu officers of the Qing Dynasty in 1759 in the Ili Valley, now part of China's Xinjiang region, in this painting made several years later by Chinese and Jesuit missionary artists. Wikimedia Commons hide caption

toggle caption Wikimedia Commons
Why A Chinese Government Think Tank Attacked American Scholars
  • Download
  • <iframe src="https://www.npr.org/player/embed/408291285/408407248" width="100%" height="290" frameborder="0" scrolling="no" title="NPR embedded audio player">
  • Transcript

In the early days, Walter Isaacson says, computers were "big ol' things with vacuum tubes" that took up entire rooms. For example, the electric analog computer named ANACOM (shown here in 1950 at Caltech) weighed 6,000 pounds and filled 13 cabinets. AP hide caption

toggle caption AP
How The Cold War And George Orwell Helped Make The Internet What It Is
  • Download
  • <iframe src="https://www.npr.org/player/embed/353269811/354106624" width="100%" height="290" frameborder="0" scrolling="no" title="NPR embedded audio player">
  • Transcript