NPR logo
Executed But Not Forgotten: Iran's Farrokhroo Parsay
  • Download
  • <iframe src="" width="100%" height="290" frameborder="0" scrolling="no" title="NPR embedded audio player">
  • Transcript
Executed But Not Forgotten: Iran's Farrokhroo Parsay


Executed But Not Forgotten: Iran's Farrokhroo Parsay

Executed But Not Forgotten: Iran's Farrokhroo Parsay
  • Download
  • <iframe src="" width="100%" height="290" frameborder="0" scrolling="no" title="NPR embedded audio player">
  • Transcript

Host Liane Hansen interviews Mahnaz Afkhami, a former Minister of State for Women's Affairs in Iran, about Farrokhroo Parsay. Parsay was the minster of education from 1968 to 1977 and was executed after the revolution for corruption. Parsay was one of Iran's most important advocates for women's rights.


Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad announced his nominations for cabinet ministers last week. Included in his choices are three women. If confirmed, they would follow only two other women in Iran's history in cabinet-level posts.

The first was Farrokhroo Parsay, a minister of education who was executed on charges of corruption after the 1979 Islamic Revolution. But she was more than a cabinet minister. She was one of Iran's most important advocates for women's rights.

The only other woman named to a cabinet post in Iran is Mahnaz Afkhami. She was in charge of Women's Affairs in Iran before the revolution. She's now a leading proponent of women's rights in the Islamic world. She lives in Bethesda, Maryland and she joins us. Welcome to the show.

Dr. MAHNAZ AFKHAMI (Former Minister of Women's Affairs, Iran): Thank you, Liane. Good to be here.

HANSEN: Tell us about Farrokhroo Parsay. Tell us about her name, her family.

Dr. AFKHAMI: Ms. Parsay was a woman who came from a long line of activists and strugglers for women's rights. Her mother was a feminist before her and she published one of the first journals on women called "Women's World." And she had a couple of articles in that journal that asked for equal opportunities for education for women. And at that time she was pressured into exile, internal exile to home, and that's where her daughter, Farrokhroo, was born in 1922.

HANSEN: Hmm. What do you consider to be some of her most important contributions to women's rights? She was pretty much responsible for getting the women the right to vote in Iran.

Dr. AFKHAMI: Well, yes. She was one of the first six women who entered parliament herself. And prior to that there was an ongoing struggle for a number of decades, and many people participated in that, hundreds of thousands of women. And, of course, she was one of the main leaders of that movement.

HANSEN: It's a little ironic now that after this election and now three women in the cabinet, and in the story about it, she was but a footnote.

Dr. AFKHAMI: Well, that's true. That's true and it's a shame because she was a pioneer in every way. She was a role model in every way. She was my own personal mentor. I know the idea of having a Women's Ministry actually came to my mind in a conversation with her, when I had just become secretary general of the Women's Organization and she was minister of Education. She paid me a courtesy call and it was very gracious of her. And I asked her, you know, about things that we wanted as women and were wishing for. And among them, I asked her if she could help with revision of the school textbooks to relay a more egalitarian image of women. And she said, yes, I'll do whatever I can. But, my dear, you have to remember I'm minister of Education. We need a minister of women for these ideas. And she was one who had that concept and idea, and relayed it to me.

HANSEN: So her legacy lives on.

Dr. AFKHAMI: Oh, absolutely. All of these women in Iran who are now doing these extraordinary things: they're protesting, they're asking for democracy, they're working so collaboratively and democratically together. They are so much committed to education. More than 60 percent of university students are women. All of these are in many ways owed to her legacy, to her spirit, to her courage.

At the time of her execution, she wrote one of the most moving letters to her children. And in that she expressed the same courage and the same steadfast belief in her principles that she had followed all of her life. And that was that: I'm a doctor. I know what it means to die, that takes only a minute. I'm not afraid of that. What I'm afraid of is to be pressured into denying 50 years of service to women.

Which I think is an eloquent expression of how she viewed life and how she viewed her struggle for women's rights.

HANSEN: Mahnaz Afkhami is a former minister of state for Women's Affairs in Iran, and founder and president of the Women's Learning Partnership in Bethesda, Maryland.

Thank you for joining us.

Dr. AFKHAMI: Thank you.

Copyright © 2009 NPR. All rights reserved. Visit our website terms of use and permissions pages at for further information.

NPR transcripts are created on a rush deadline by Verb8tm, Inc., an NPR contractor, and produced using a proprietary transcription process developed with NPR. This text may not be in its final form and may be updated or revised in the future. Accuracy and availability may vary. The authoritative record of NPR’s programming is the audio record.



Please keep your community civil. All comments must follow the Community rules and terms of use, and will be moderated prior to posting. NPR reserves the right to use the comments we receive, in whole or in part, and to use the commenter's name and location, in any medium. See also the Terms of Use, Privacy Policy and Community FAQ.