India's Diverse Faiths, As Told Through 'Nine Lives'

Nine Lives
Nine Lives: In Search of the Sacred in Modern India
By William Dalrymple
Hardcover, 304 pages
Knopf
List price: $26.95
Read An Excerpt

India is the world's largest democracy and home to a multitude of faiths. British journalist William Dalrymple, who has lived in India on and off for the last 25 years, surveys the subcontinent's rich religious topography in his latest book, Nine Lives: In Search of the Sacred in Modern India.

People "talk of Hinduism as if it's a single faith," Dalrymple tells NPR's Steve Inskeep. In fact, "Hinduism is a vast network of different religious systems and different religious practices."

Dalrymple profiles nine religious devotees to tell the story of India's different faiths — from a Buddhist monk, to an idol carver, to a Jain nun. "Everyone in the west knows about Buddhism," Dalrymple says. "No one knows about the Jains."

Dalrymple explains that Jainism is the older, "sister religion of Buddhism" — established by Mahavira, a sage who "came from the same world as Buddha" — the "sophisticated, urban" landscape of the Ganges basin around 500 B.C.

Both Mahavira and the Buddha founded their respective faiths in reaction to the "materialism" and "sensuality" of this early Indian city-state. Jains and Buddhists both strove to "keep away from the pleasures of the flesh and withdraw from the world," but, Dalrymple explains, Jainist asceticism was more severe; the Buddhist "middle way" was a reaction to the Jains' extreme ascetic approach.

"To give just two examples, Buddhist monks shave their heads," Dalrymple says. "The Jains pluck out their hairs one by one in a ceremony that's deliberately painful. Likewise, Buddhist monks can beg, but Jain monks have to just signal hunger by arching their right hand over their shoulder. Beyond that, they're not allowed to ask for food, and they're never allowed to touch money of any sort."

William Dalrymple i i

William Dalrymple is the author of several books, including The Last Moghal and The Age of Kali. Karoki Lewis hide caption

itoggle caption Karoki Lewis
William Dalrymple

William Dalrymple is the author of several books, including The Last Moghal and The Age of Kali.

Karoki Lewis

Jains also have such respect for life that as they walk, "they sweep the ground in front of them to make sure they don't step on ants." They will not even step in puddles, just in case "there's some life form they will hurt inside the puddles."

The Jain nun Dalrymple profiles in Nine Lives "had given up all her worldly wealth ... had given up her family, and was wandering the Earth, treading as lightly as possible." But Dalrymple found that she was tortured because she had unwittingly violated one of the rules of her faith: she had become close friends with another nun, who had walked beside her for 20 years.

"When that nun got ill and found that she was dying slowly, she undertook what is for Jains the final step of Jain asceticism," Dalrymple says — a ritual refusal of food. "It's a process which they do over two to three years, in a very set way they've been doing for centuries. And of course, they die." To a Jain, such gradual starvation is not tantamount to suicide. Like Buddhists, they believe in reincarnation, so refusing food voluntarily is like "giving up one set of clothes to go on to the next life."

The nun, devastated by her friend's death, was disappointed in herself for becoming so attached to another person. "In both Buddhism and Jainism, a lack of attachment means detachment," Dalrymple says. "And to be truly detached, you can't love. You can't form close friendships. And she realized that she had not followed ... the dictates of her faith because she loved her companion."

The nun says she was "punished" for her love: "I formed not just an attachment, but a strong attachment, and that left an opening for suffering," she says.

It's an ideal that feels very foreign in America — where the culture encourages being open, even if it makes you emotional vulnerability. Illustrating the existence of these differences is the reason Dalrymple decided to write his book. "Today, we live with this illusion that we know the world," he says. "The reality, of course, is — and this became very clear after 9/11 — that there's huge parts of the world which we know absolutely nothing about, particularly in areas of religion and philosophy."

India is a particularly fascinating case because of how quickly it's growing and changing. "Outside where I live in Delhi, there are now headquarters of Google Asia, back office processing units — it's developing incredibly fast," Dalrymple says. "All over the world you have this veneer of globalization and yet you've only got to rub away that surface veneer, and you find huge, vast differences."

The religious journeys Dalrymple describes in Nine Lives are incredibly personal. The book itself, though, is "emphatically not" about Dalrymple's own religious search — (he comes from a Catholic background.) Instead, he says the real lesson of both Nine Lives and India itself "is pluralism." The nation's incredible diversity "makes it very difficult to believe in only your own faith — that the faith you happen to have been born into is the only possible way of reaching God," he says. India inspires the idea "that there are many ways up the mountain."

Excerpt: 'Nine Lives'

Nine Lives
Nine Lives: In Search of the Sacred in Modern India
By William Dalrymple
Hardcover, 304 pages
Knopf
List price: $26.95

The Nun's Tale

Two hills of blackly gleaming granite, smooth as glass, rise from a thickly wooded landscape of banana plantations and jagged palmyra palms. It is dawn. Below lies the ancient pilgrimage town of Sravanabelagola, where the crumbling walls of monasteries, temples and dharamsalas cluster around a grid of dusty, red earth roads. The roads converge on a great rectangular tank. The tank is dotted with the spreading leaves and still-closed buds of floating lotus flowers. Already, despite the early hour, the first pilgrims are gathering.

For more than 2,000 years, this Karnatakan town has been sacred to the Jains. It was here, in the third century bc, that the first Emperor of India, Chandragupta Maurya, embraced the Jain religion and died through a self-imposed fast to the death, the emperor's chosen atonement for the killings for which he had been responsible in his life of conquest. Twelve hundred years later, in ad 981, a Jain general commissioned the largest monolithic statue in India, sixty feet high, on the top of the larger of the two hills, Vindhyagiri.

This was an image of another royal Jain hero, Prince Bahubali. The prince had fought a duel with his brother Bharata for control of his father's kingdom. But in the very hour of his victory, Bahubali realised the folly of greed and the transience of worldly glory. He renounced his kingdom and embraced instead the path of the ascetic. Retreating to the jungle, he stood in meditation for a year, so that the vines of the forest curled around his legs and tied him to the spot. In this state he conquered what he believed to be the real enemies — his passions, ambitions, pride and desires — and so became, according to the Jains, the first human being to achieve moksha, or spiritual liberation.

The sun has only just risen above the palm trees, and an early morning haze still cloaks the ground. Yet already the line of pilgrims — from a distance, tiny ant-like creatures against the dawn-glistening fused-mercury of the rock face — are climbing the steps that lead up to the monumental hilltop figure of the stone prince. For the past thousand years this massive broad-shouldered statue, enclosed in its lattice of stone vines, has been the focus of pilgrimage in this Vatican of the Digambara, or Sky Clad Jains.

Digambara monks are probably the most severe of all India's ascetics. They show their total renunciation of the world by travelling through it completely naked, as light as the air, as they conceive it, and as clear as the Indian sky. Sure enough, among the many ordinary lay people in lungis and saris slowly mounting the rock-cut steps are several completely naked men — Digambara monks on their way to do homage to Bahubali. There are also a number of white-clad Digambara nuns, or matajis, and it was in a temple just short of the summit that I first laid eyes on Prasannamati Mataji.

I had seen the tiny, slender, barefoot figure of the nun in her white sari bounding up the steps above me as I began my ascent. She climbed quickly, with a pot of water made from a coconut shell in one hand, and a peacock fan in the other. As she climbed, she gently wiped each step with the fan in order to make sure she didn't stand on, hurt or kill a single living creature on her ascent of the hill: one of the set rules of pilgrimage for a Jain muni, or ascetic.

It was only when I got to the Vadegall Basadi, the temple which lies just below the summit, that I caught up with her — and saw that despite her bald head Mataji was in fact a surprisingly young and striking woman. She had large, wide-apart eyes, olive skin and an air of self-contained confidence that expressed itself in a vigour and ease in the way she held her body. But there was also something sad and wistful about her expression as she went about her devotions; and this, combined with her unexpected youth and beauty, left one wanting to know more.

Mataji was busy with her prayers when I first entered the temple. After the glimmering half-light outside, the interior was almost completely black, and it took several minutes for my eyes fully to adjust to the gloom. At the cardinal points within the temple, at first almost invisible, were three smooth, black marble images of the Jain Tirthankaras, or Liberators. Each was sculpted sitting Buddha-like in the virasana samadhi, with shaved head and elongated earlobes. The hands of each Tirthankara was cupped, and they sat cross-legged in a lotus position, impassive and focused inwards, locked in the deepest introspection and meditation. Tirthankara means literally "ford-maker," and the Jains believe these heroic ascetic figures have shown the way to Nirvana, making a spiritual ford through the rivers of suffering, and across the wild oceans of existence and rebirth, so as to create a crossing place between samsara and liberation.

To each of these figures in turn, Mataji bowed. She then took some water from the attendant priest and poured it over the hands of the statues. This water she collected in a pot, and then used it to anoint the top of her own head. According to Jain belief, it is good and meritorious for pilgrims to express their devotion to the Tirthankaras, but they can expect no earthly rewards for such prayers: as perfected beings, the ford-makers have liberated themselves from the world of men, and so are not present in the statues in the way that, say, Hindus believe their deities are incarnate in temple images. The pilgrim can venerate, praise, adore and learn from the example of the Tirthankaras, and they can use them as a focus for their meditations. But as the ford-makers are removed from the world they are unable to answer prayers; the relationship between the devotee and the object of his devotion is entirely one way. At its purest, Jainism is almost an atheistic religion, and the much venerated images of the Tirthankaras in temples represent not so much a divine presence as a profound divine absence.

I was intrigued by Mataji's intense dedication to the images, but as she was deep in her prayers, it was clear that now was not the moment to interrupt her, still less to try to talk to her. From the temple, she headed up the hill to wash the feet of Bahubali. There she silently mouthed her morning prayers at the feet of the statue, her rosary circling in her hand. Then she made five rounds of the parikrama pilgrim circuit around the sanctuary, and as quickly as she had leapt up the steps, she headed down them again, peacock fan flicking and sweeping each step before her.

It was only the following day that I applied for, and was given, a formal audience — or as the monks called it, darshan — with Mataji at the monastery guest house; and it was only the day after that, as we continued our conversations, that I began to learn what had brought about her air of unmistakable melancholy.

Excerpted from Nine Lives by William Dalrymple Copyright 2010 by William Dalrymple. Excerpted by permission of Knopf, a division of Random House Inc.

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