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The Wonderful, Mysterious Yawn

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The Wonderful, Mysterious Yawn

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The Wonderful, Mysterious Yawn

The Wonderful, Mysterious Yawn

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The science behind a persistently mystifying animal behavior, the yawn.

LUKE BURBANK, host:

Well, this is the part of THE BRYANT PARK PROJECT where we take a person who I think is maybe one of the best radio reporters out there - Robert Krulwich -take one of his awesome pieces that he's done for one of the other NPR shows - a piece that we hear and we can't stop talking about it and…

ALISON STEWART, host:

It's a staff pick.

BURBANK: It is a total staff pick. This guy is like my radio hero. And today, he's got a story about something that you can't control, something you can't resist, something that is a little understood, but we all do it, anyway.

Here's Robert Krulwich.

Dr. ROBERT PROVINE (Professor of Psychology and Neuroscience, University of Maryland): Now, you're a very silly person.

(Soundbite of laughter)

Dr. PROVINE: This could really deteriorate here, but we won't go there. Okay?

ROBERT KRULWICH: Oh, yes, we will. This is Provine's idea. It's not mine.

Dr. PROVINE: This excites you.

(Soundbite of laughter)

KRULWICH: Robert Provine teaches psychology at the University of Maryland. He's the author of a major book on laughter, and he saw that famous Monty Python sketch when he was a kid about a joke so funny that it's lethal - literally lethal.

If you remember, at the start of the skit, six people hear a joke that you're never allowed to hear - it'd be too dangerous. They so can't stop laughing that, one-by-one, they die.

(Soundbite of laughter)

(Soundbite of thump)

KRULWICH: Here's the first one.

(Soundbite of thump)

KRULWICH: Second. The joke is so funny - here's third - it's literally a killer.

(Soundbite of thump)

KRULWICH: And then here comes the fifth.

(Soundbite of thump)

KRULWICH: And then, the sixth.

(Soundbite of thump)

KRULWICH: It's like a doomsday joke. So Provine thought why not take the same idea and try it for yawns?

Dr. PROVINE: It would be really cool if we could come up with…

KRULWICH: With what?

Dr. PROVINE: …the pursuit of the doomsday yawn.

(Soundbite of laughter)

KRULWICH: Not a yawn that kills, but a yawn so powerful, it would make everybody who sees it - everybody - yawn back. This would be the totally contagious yawn.

Dr. PROVINE: Basically, I thought it would be fun coming up with sort of like the ultimate yawn stimulus, the supra-normal stimulus.

KRULWICH: Which would be what, exactly? Because if you ask yourself…

Dr. PROVINE: What makes a person yawn when they see another yawning face? It must be the gaping mouth.

KRULWICH: And therefore, there must be some perfect shape for a gaping mouth, with perfect timing, perfect sound that would make a yawn so irresistible…

Dr. PROVINE: Oh, we could develop a super gaping mouth, a super yawn stimulus.

KRULWICH: So Robert Provine got some of his students to yawn.

(Soundbite of yawning)

KRULWICH: First on videotape. It was, he says…

Dr. PROVINE: Five-minute series of repeated yawns.

KRULWICH: Nothing special, which he then played in his classrooms. And he discovered that a basic yawn medley creates a yawn response in about 55 percent of his viewers - 55 percent, which didn't seem like a lot.

Dr. PROVINE: Well, in a laboratory-type situation, 55 percent of people actually yawned.

KRULWICH: That is a lot, he says, for actual yawns.

Dr. PROVINE: Virtually everyone reported being tempted to yawn.

(Soundbite of yawning)

KRULWICH: And it didn't matter, by the way, whether the yawning faces were turned upside down or tilted or totally sideways, or whether they were black and white or whether they were in color. Still, 55 percent of the audience yawned. So, the goal, then, was to move up - if he could figure out how - to the ultimate 100 percent effective yawn, and that's when things got really interesting.

First, just because he was curious, he decided to cover - literally block out the gaping mouths so you couldn't see it on the video. And oddly, without a mouth, the same 55 percent of the audience yawned, anyway.

Dr. PROVINE: That was a big surprise.

KRULWICH: You mean, if you can't see the mouth, you still want to yawn?

Dr. PROVINE: Yeah.

KRULWICH: Weird. So why would people yawn at no gape at all? So Provine decided to double his bet. He designed a yawn that was only mouth.

Dr. PROVINE: Yes.

KRULWICH: Just the mouth.

Dr. PROVINE: Just the mouth.

KRULWICH: And it turned out that looking at no eyes, no head, just a big yawning hole of a mouth got fewer yawns back.

Dr. PROVINE: It was like, oh, no. The whole project's going down the tubes.

KRULWICH: Because if a gaping mouth does not trigger a yawn, what does? That's when Provine recalled that scientists have observed fetuses in the first trimester yawning in the womb.

(Soundbite of yawning)

KRULWICH: When they yawn in there, they also stretch, which brings up what is known as…

Dr. PROVINE: The yawn-stretch complex.

KRULWICH: That says yawns and stretches are profoundly related. For example, try this…

Dr. PROVINE: The next time you start to yawn, clinch your teeth together and don't open your jaw.

KRULWICH: So you feel the yawn coming on, but if you stay clinched, you won't be able to complete your yawn.

Dr. PROVINE: Just like it's stuck. It can't resolve. You've got to stretch the jaw, so there is this relationship between - you also see this pattern in dogs and cats, for example. And they rousing and, you know, they stretch and yawn.

KRULWICH: So maybe, thought Provine, it's the stretch, the elongation of the face. That is the trigger that produces the yawn. After all, we all do it.

Dr. PROVINE: And, in fact, virtually all animals with backbones yawn. It's not just humans.

KRULWICH: Really?

Dr. PROVINE: Snakes do it. Fish do it.

KRULWICH: Cats do it. Dogs do it. So if you try and extend the stretch in a video, you make it go longer and further and you open wider, is that the trigger that produces more yawns?

Dr. PROVINE: Nope. It's not.

KRULWICH: It didn't work, not at all. He got no extra yawns. In fact - and this is sad - Provine discovered that showing nothing, just talking about yawn, say, here on the radio…

Dr. PROVINE: Just as we are talking about yawning this very minute…

KRULWICH: Fifty-five percent of our listeners are about to yawn.

Dr. PROVINE: They may have already done it.

(Soundbite of laughter)

KRULWICH: So for all his efforts, Robert Provine has been unable to create a yawn that beats the standard 55 percent response, because apparently, there is no primary trigger.

Dr. PROVINE: It's like, you know, many things in nature, there's not a cause. There's a number of them.

KRULWICH: And the precise combination that takes the yawn from me to you -stretching face muscles, tilting head, closing eyes, making the noise - he's tinkered, he's searched, but so far he has not found the secret recipe. So while he dreamed of a doomsday yawn…

Dr. PROVINE: It didn't work out that way.

KRULWICH: In fact, after all this, Robert Provine isn't even sure why we yawn. There are theories it's a way to cool off or change mood. Or perhaps a yawn is a physical expression of our human ability to share, human empathy wired into a brain, although maybe not just our brains.

Dr. PROVINE: For example, if you see your dog or cat yawn, you're likely to yawn, although…

KRULWICH: What if your cat and dog were to see you yawn?

Dr. PROVINE: Yeah, now that is a more difficult issue.

KRULWICH: Can a dog catch a yawn from a person? Provine says, I don't know.

ADRIENNE: Cosby, look.

(Soundbite of yawning)

KRULWICH: But the very first couple I asked, Adrienne and Win - Win's an NPR producer in New York City - when they went home and yawned straight at their dog, Cosby…

(Soundbite of dog yawning)

WIN ROSENFELD: Okay.

ADRIENNE: He just did it.

(Soundbite of laughter)

ROSENFELD: He just did it.

KRULWICH: Incredible.

ADRIENNE: It just - oh, he's doing it again. He's just yawning. I mean, he looked over at Win and then looked over at me and just started yawning. And he actually did it twice.

(Soundbite of yawning)

KRULWICH: It turns out the most mysterious thing about yawning is that it's so consistently mysterious.

Robert Krulwich, NPR News.

ADRIENNE: He's just looking at me strangely.

BURBANK: I just am glad to know that I yawned about 15 minutes during that piece, and it's because I'm a sharing person.

STEWART: There you go.

BURBANK: I just want to share with you guys.

STEWART: Thanks, Mr. Krulwich.

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