Chavez Fights Back After Recent Referendum Loss

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Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez surprised many with his graceful public acceptance of the recent defeat of proposed constitutional reforms. But the kinder Chavez didn't last long. By midweek, he lashed out at Venezuela's opposition, and pledged to press forward with plans to expand his power.

ROBERT SIEGEL, host:

By most accounts, Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez was graceful when he accepted the defeat of his constitutional reforms last weekend. But by mid-week, that kinder, gentler Chavez was gone.

From Caracas, NPR's Julie McCarthy reports.

JULIE McCARTHY: The various personas of Hugo Chavez were on display this week. Sunday saw a chastened Chavez seated before long-faced ministers, don't be sad. The difference in votes was microscopic, he told them. It was just 1.4 percent.

A magnanimous Chavez then turned to the opposition, reassuring them that he would honor the results.

President HUGO CHAVEZ (Venezuela): (Speaking in Spanish)

McCARTHY: I hope that those leaders of the opposition who have been nervous and thinking that I would not recognize this reality or that we would prolong this agony, feel peaceful and content. He told them to go home and celebrate what they have to celebrate, in a healthy way.

Explaining why Venezuelans had voted down his sweeping constitutional reforms that would have allowed him unlimited reelection and speeded Venezuela's march toward socialism, Chavez said, the ideas were audacious, and admitted, there were doubts and fears.

The statesman-like demeanor was a sharp departure from the pugnacious Chavez on the referendum campaign trail, where he ridiculed the opposition as lackeys of Washington, and warns supporters that if they voted against him, they would be regarded as traitors to the revolution.

Dmitri Oborsner(ph), professor emeritus at the Central University of Venezuela, says the 180-degree turn in tone on the night of his concession speech was vintage Chavez.

Professor DMITRI OBORSNER (Professor Emeritus, Central University of Venezuela): He has an amazing capability to switch from a very aggressive, confrontational tone to a sudden mired style where he sounds like the perfect democrat, and one wonders whether it's really the same man. But so far, as experience has shown that these times of miredness(ph) are usually very short-lived.

McCARTHY: In fact, barely 72 hours had elapsed and Chavez's congeniality had evaporated. He attacked claims by some in the opposition that the tally from Sunday's vote was the result of a deal made under pressure from some elements in the army.

In the joint news conference with the high command, Chavez had some choice words for the opposition, so choice, they had to be bleeped out.

President CHAVEZ: (Speaking in Spanish)

(Soundbite of bleep)

McCARTHY: You should administer your victory properly. But already, you are covering it in (bleep). It's a (bleep) victory, he said. And ours call it defeat is a defeat of courage, valor and dignity. We haven't moved a millimeter, and we won't.

President CHAVEZ: (Speaking in Spanish)

McCARTHY: The headline in today's leading opposition newspaper Tal Cual blared, the government is (bleep). New vulgarisms have been decreed for this revolution with words such as democracy, liberty and consensus that are considered disgusting, the paper said. Pollster and economist Luis Vicente Leon said President Chavez's only electoral defeat in nine years has dulled his political sheen.

Mr. LUIS VICENTE LEON (Pollster, Economist): He was like an idol and so strong. He never lost - almost a god, you know. And now, he is just a normal guy who could lose.

McCARTHY: Even staunch Chavez loyalist and national deputy Luis Tascon says that the referendum defeat showed the president to be, quote, "is a historical leader also a human being."

Tascon wants a reassessment of the Chavismo movement and a more pluralistic path to reform that would remove those, he says, who have lost touch with the people.

Mr. LUIS TASCON (Deputy, National Assembly): (Through translator) Inside Chavismo, they are constructing an elite of power at all levels too - a regional elite, the municipal elite and national elite. But like all elites, it's beginning to be removed from the reality of the people. For example, for members of the powerful elite, the problem of personal security doesn't exist because they are surrounded by guards watching their backs.

McCARTHY: Chavez has minimized the defeat and warned that he'll renew the fight to advance his socialist agenda by other means. As one analyst put it, he lost a battle but not the war.

Julie McCarthy, NPR News, Caracas.

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Controversy Marks Career of Venezuela's Chavez

Chavez at the U.N.

Hugo Chavez criticized President Bush in a speech he made at the United Nations in Sept. 2006. Read NPR's coverage, and watch the speech.

Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez recently lost a bid to change the country's constitution in ways that would have given him expansive new powers, including the chance to stay in office indefinitely.

But the stocky, 53-year-old former soldier already has wide-ranging domestic authority, and his country's oil wealth gives him unprecedented influence outside the country. He has been a polarizing figure in both arenas, clashing with business interests at home and with the United States and other leading industrial nations abroad.

The proposed changes could make it possible for him to stay in power indefinitely.

The Proposed Changes

Among the 69 constitutional changes rejected by voters was one that would have freed Chavez from a two-term limit and allowed him to run for re-election as many times as he wished. Another provision would have given the president authority over the central bank and, thus, over Venezuela's money supply and interest rates. A third proposal would have allowed the government to detain citizens without charge during a state of emergency.

Critics say the changes would have spelled the end of Venezuela's democracy and allowed Chavez to reign as a virtual dictator.

Supporters of the plan say the changes actually would have given more direct power to Venezuela's working people by, among other things, allowing them to speak through a system of neighborhood councils.

Controversial Politics

Chavez has stirred controversy through much of his career.

He is a former Venezuelan Army paratrooper who rose to the rank of lieutenant colonel before leading a failed military coup in 1992. He and his military colleagues based their attempted revolution on a socialist-style doctrine called "Bolivarianism," which was named for Simon Bolivar, the 19th century Venezuelan revolutionary leader. The doctrine, which they had developed over 10 years, calls for freedom from foreign economic or political domination, participatory democracy, economic self-sufficiency and fair distribution of the country's oil wealth.

After his troops failed to gain control of Venezuela's capital city, Caracas, Chavez gave himself up and served two years in prison. While he was in jail, the man he sought to overthrow, President Carlos Andres Perez, was impeached on corruption charges and removed from office.

Chavez was pardoned in 1994. He entered politics, establishing a party called the Movement of the Fifth Republic.

He advocated free health care and education for Venezuela's poor, as well as a fair distribution of Venezuela's oil wealth. This platform helped him win the presidency in 1998, with 56 percent of the vote.

Leading the Country

Once in office, Chavez responded to his major constituency, the poor, with "Plan Bolivar 2000." He boosted government spending on roads, housing and disease prevention. He also blocked efforts to privatize state-controlled businesses, including some in the oil and aluminum industries.

When opponents in Venezuela's national assembly stalled his legislation, he called a referendum to rewrite the constitution and held an election that ensured it was rewritten by his supporters. The new constitution increased the president's powers and made it easier for him to control the legislative branch.

In 2002, Chavez was briefly deposed in a coup, triggered, in part, by his attempts to gain control over the state-owned oil company. He was held under arrest for about two days before soldiers loyal to him recaptured the presidential palace and restored him to power.

Chavez later claimed that the administration of President George W. Bush provided covert support for those who tried to overthrow him, a charge the United States has denied.

Two years later, Chavez prevailed over an attempt to recall him, winning 59 percent of the vote in an election that was certified by international monitors as free and fair.

Foreign Allegiances

In foreign affairs, Chavez has sought to align himself with Latin American leaders who oppose the influence of the United States, especially on their economic policies. They include Cuban leader Fidel Castro, Bolivian President Evo Morales and outgoing Argentinean President Nestor Kirchner.

He has also met with autocratic rulers from other nations, including Moammar Gadhafi of Libya and Belarusian leader Alexander Lukashenko.

Chavez often antagonizes the United States. In a 2006 speech to the U.N. General Assembly, he referred to President Bush as "the devil," accusing him of seeking to dominate and exploit developing nations. He also has offered deeply discounted heating fuel to low-income families in the United States, from parts of New York City to remote villages in Alaska.

Chavez's abrasive style has recently drawn him into confrontations with other world figures. At a recent summit meeting in Chile, King Juan Carlos of Spain asked the Venezuelan leader why he wouldn't "shut up" while the Spanish prime minister was speaking.

He recently insulted the president of neighboring Colombia, Alvaro Uribe, during an effort to mediate with Colombia's leftist rebels. Chavez called Uribe "a servile instrument of the North American empire in Latin America."

Chavez' defeat in the referendum on Venezuela's constitution marks the first time he ever lost an election. He said he accepted the results and acknowledged that he may have over-reached himself. "I understand and accept that the proposal I made was quite profound and intense," he told reporters after the results were announced.

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