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Beginning Thursday, travelers who enter the U.S. by land or sea from Canada or Mexico must show proof of identity and citizenship at border checkpoints like this one in order to gain entry.
Beginning Thursday, travelers who enter the U.S. by land or sea from Canada or Mexico must show proof of identity and citizenship at border checkpoints like this one in order to gain entry. Sandy Huffaker/Getty Images
Beginning Thursday, travelers entering the U.S. by land or sea from Canada or Mexico must show proof of identity and citizenship in order to gain entry. Up until now, Americans could basically declare themselves U.S. citizens and cross the border. It was up to the customs officer to decide whether more documents were needed.
What kinds of documents will border agents want to see now? And will agents send you home if you don't have them? Read the basics of the new rules:
What documents should I have with me?
Travelers age 19 and older must provide a passport or government-issued photo ID along with proof of citizenship, such as a birth certificate.
Many documents prove both identity and citizenship. According to the Department of Homeland Security Web site, they are:
- U.S. or Canadian passport
- U.S. passport card
- Trusted traveler cards such as Nexus, Secure Electronic Network for Travelers Rapid Inspection (SENTRI) and Free and Secure Trade (FAST)
- State- or provincial-issued enhanced driver's license
- Enhanced tribal cards
- U.S. military ID with military travel orders
- U.S. Merchant Mariner Document
- Native American tribal photo identification card
- Form I-872 American Indian card
- Indian and Northern Affairs Canada card
However, if you don't have one of these documents, you can show border agents a photo ID such as a driver's license or government-issued or military ID card and citizenship documents such as a birth certificate, certificate of citizenship or naturalization.
Children age 18 and under are required to present only proof of citizenship, such as a birth certificate.
People who are entering the U.S. legally but are not citizens will be required to show their permanent resident card or other evidence of legal status.
What happens if I have the wrong documents?
No one will be prevented entry just for lack of the right documents – at least for a while.
Those who do not have proof of citizenship are likely to receive a warning. Leaving your proof at home, however, could mean waiting longer at the border as DHS verifies your citizenship.
DHS will be flexible during what is a sort of warm-up for the summer of 2009, when everyone will be required to show a passport, passport card or certain secure driver's licenses to cross the border.
Why the change?
The 9/11 Commission's report suggested more secure documentation for U.S. entry to improve security. Officials say that thousands of people cross the border each year using phony IDs.
Critics say you can expect to wait longer to cross the border. But the initial reports indicate that the change has not led to any unusual backups. That could change in the coming months, however, as customs officers become more stringent about the new requirements.
What does it mean for lines at the border?
Critics say you can expect to wait longer to cross the border. But the initial reports indicate that the change has not led to any unusual backups. However, that could change in the coming months, as customs officers become more stringent about the new requirements.
What is an enhanced driver's license and a passport card?
The government has been developing new forms of ID that would streamline border stops, especially for residents of border states and towns.
Some states have promised to issue new licenses that include a radio-frequency identification (RFID) chip. The cards are quickly scanned at the border, and the guard can look at a secure database that pulls up biographic information about the person, including a photo and the results of terrorist/criminal checks.
Washington State is the first state to begin offering drivers the enhanced licenses. Several border states – including Arizona, California, Michigan, Texas, Vermont and New York — are working with the government to also offer them.
U.S. passports issued since 2006 contain RFID chips.
The new U.S. passport card – which the State Department will begin issuing this spring – will be wallet-sized and embedded with an RFID chip that, like an enhanced driver's license, will link to a U.S. government database containing biographical data and a photograph. Unlike the familiar passport book, however, the card may not be used to travel by air.
The government is touting passport cards as a less expensive and more portable alternative to the traditional passport book. The cards are valid for the same length of time as the books — 10 years for an adult, five for children 15 and younger. Adults who already have a passport book can apply for the card as a passport renewal and pay $20. Adults who are first-time passport applicants will pay $45, children will pay $35 — less than half of what a traditional passport costs.