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Kurds Weigh Future in Federated Iraq

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Kurds Weigh Future in Federated Iraq


Kurds Weigh Future in Federated Iraq

Kurds Weigh Future in Federated Iraq

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  • <iframe src="" width="100%" height="290" frameborder="0" scrolling="no" title="NPR embedded audio player">
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The Kurds of northern Iraq have been largely autonomous for more than a decade. Now, they're being asked to join a united Iraq. Can federalism work for the Kurds, or can Iraq work without them?


I'm Alex Chadwick. First Iraq, where the trial of Saddam Hussein resumed today in Baghdad. This one is for crimes against the Kurds in military campaigns in the late 1980s.

Anne Garrels is in Baghdad. She has just returned from a reporting trip to Kurdistan. That's northern Iraq, where the Kurdish people live and live in - I gather, Annie - more harmony now than you've seen in quite some time. This is an unusual region of Iraq.

ANNE GARRELS: Curiously, even though this is part of Iraq, when you arrive in Sulaymaniyah you actually have to go through passport control from Baghdad. That just indicates how separate this is. Suddenly I saw no concrete barriers, no razor wire, no troops with guns bristling racing through the streets. I sat in a restaurant late into the night on an outside terrace and I had a Tuborg, a chilled one at that.

CHADWICK: A cold beer in Iraq? I don't know, Annie, that's - there's a kind of a...

GARRELS: That was pretty racy.

CHADWICK: It's a concrete example of how different Kurdistan and northern Iraq truly is from the rest of the country. You mention this - a passport control. The Kurds really do think of themselves as somewhat separate from the rest of Iraq and therein hangs a problem for everyone, perhaps.

GARRELS: Yes, but it's interesting. Talking to the Kurds, they all, to a man or woman, want independence. But when you say to them, okay, when is this going to happen, they are all realistic. They know that they have ugly neighbors, as they put it. Whether it be the Turks, the Iranians, the Syrians - they know this isn't going to happen fast.

And so they're just taking as much as they can in terms of autonomy for the time being. And they are very happy that they do not have the kind of violence that is down in the south. And they are a much more moderate people than you are seeing now down in the south.

I saw, you know, young women - some were in hijabs, some conservative Kurdish clothes, some in very sexy t-shirts and tight jeans. But having said that, the society is very conservative and the boys and girls who were walking on the streets do not date.

CHADWICK: Let me just see if I have recent Kurdish history correct. The whole northern part of Iraq, where the Kurds are, was sort of more or less autonomous after the 1991 Gulf War. The U.S. was flying over there and making sure that Saddam couldn't get airplanes up over there, didn't have any air power. So the Kurds have been used to kind of running things for themselves for a while. Is that why you have this region that appears to be largely free of the terrible violence that's afflicting the rest of Iraq?

GARRELS: Absolutely. I mean - and indeed in the 1990s - I mean, the Kurds fought each other. They kind of got their problems out of the way in the '90s, you know, while there was that no fly zone. They fought each other. It was pretty bloody. I mean, but by now they've buried the hatchet. They're working together, the different Kurdish parties, and there's a kind of economic boom.

Now, that region is not without its problems. They've got electricity problems like Baghdad. They've got real water problems like the south of Iraq. But they don't have the violence. They are pretty much homogenous. It is largely, you know, almost entirely Kurdish and they agree on their common future. So yes, they've gone through their hell and they've now got relative peace.

CHADWICK: This is a Sunni Islamic region, Annie, and as you say, it is a Kurdish region. I wonder if there are lessons there that the Kurds might offer to the rest of Iraq. Is there anything that Kurdistan can say to the rest of Iraq that would help this country find its way out of the mess that it's in today?

GARRELS: I don't think so. And frankly, most of the Kurds look down at the south and they see this terrible violence and whatever and they don't really pay much attention to it. In fact, if you say to a Kurd and you try and compare Sulaymaniyah or Erbil, the two main cities in Kurdistan to Baghdad, they bristle. They want to be compared with Europe.

Now, it is not yet Europe and there are - as I said - you know, some real problems still, because there's corruption, there's nepotism. But they are homogeneous. There are many Arabs moving up from Baghdad into the region. That's causing some consternation, but for the moment the Kurds seem to say, okay, they need refuge, we're not going to send them out. But they don't want them to stay forever.

CHADWICK: NPR's Anne Garrels reporting from Baghdad. You'll hear her full reports on Kurdistan on NPR News this week. Anne, thank you.

GARRELS: Thank you.

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