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IndyMac Collapse Fuels Fears About WaMu

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IndyMac Collapse Fuels Fears About WaMu


IndyMac Collapse Fuels Fears About WaMu

IndyMac Collapse Fuels Fears About WaMu

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Following IndyMac's collapse, questions have been raised about Washington Mutual, one of the largest savings and loans. This week, WaMu issued a statement to show it was financially sound. But the company's own projections estimate losses of up to $19 billion.


Te government takeover of IndyMac is sparking concerns about other financial institutions. Washington Mutual is one that's under enormous financial strain. It's one of the nation's largest savings and loans. This week, Washington Mutual had to do something that financial institutions do not like to do. It issued a statement promising that it had plenty of money on hand. NPR's Wendy Kaufman explains why.

WENDY KAUFMAN: Washington Mutual's stock is selling for a little more than 10 percent of what it was worth a year ago, so the statement was designed to persuade Wall Street and depositors that the firm was financially sound and could survive as an independent financial institution.

Trouble at the Seattle-based savings and loan commonly known as WaMu has been brewing for some time. As some critics see it, the once-conservative institution got greedy and is now paying the price.

Rich Clayton(ph), the research director of a union-affiliated investment group, says in 2003 and 2004, WaMu shifted away from fixed-rate mortgages to higher-paying ones which carried more risk; subprime and adjustable-rate loans, for example. Many of the company's loans were in California, where the housing market was overheated. And, says Clayton...

Mr. RICH CLAYTON: They didn't anticipate that house prices were actually going to fall, even though there were plenty of warning signs. They also didn't really understand the nature of the mortgages that they were issuing and the degree to which falling house prices would translate into very large delinquency and default rates on those mortgages.

KAUFMAN: Now the company's own projections call for huge losses, says Jamie Peters, a bank analyst at Morningstar.

Ms. JAMIE PETERS (Morningstar): Depending on what happens with the economy, the California real estate market, the nationwide real estate market, they're projecting somewhere between $12 and $19 billion of losses on their portfolio. That is a lot, a lot of money.

KAUFMAN: So is the company likely to become the next IndyMac? Gary Gordon a stock analyst at Portales Partners, an independent research firm, says there are three big differences between WaMu and the California bank taken over by federal regulators.

First, WaMu has far more capital. A $7 billion infusion of private equity earlier this year helped on that score. Second...

Mr. GARY GORDON (Portales Partners): While Washington Mutual certainly does not have a pristine loan portfolio, it's a lot better looking than IndyMac's was. Then the third thing is the deposit base. While IndyMac had a couple of branches, by and large their deposits came from advertising, much more hot money. People were in there for a higher rate.

KAUFMAN: They would abandon the bank in a second, he says, and they did. In contrast, says Gordon, WaMu has a retail network of more than 2,000 branches, which generates billions in profits and has a loyal customer base. They're not likely to start a run on the bank.

Washington Mutual cited its strong retail base in this week's statement about capital and liquidity, but the company isn't saying anything more until it releases its quarterly earnings next week. Wall Street and perhaps Main Street will be paying close attention.

Meanwhile, expect more layoffs in September. The company has already laid off more than 7,000 employees this year. Wendy Kaufman, NPR News, Seattle.

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Senator's Warning May Have Doomed IndyMac

Senator's Warning May Have Doomed IndyMac

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People enter an IndyMac Bank branch in Pasadena, Calif., after waiting in line with hundreds of other customers, July 14. David McNew/Getty Images hide caption

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David McNew/Getty Images

People enter an IndyMac Bank branch in Pasadena, Calif., after waiting in line with hundreds of other customers, July 14.

David McNew/Getty Images

IndyMac: Path To Failure

Follow key events leading to the failure of IndyMac Bank.


Early February 2008: IndyMac stock is trading for more than $10 per share.


June 24: Moody's downgrades IndyMac. Stock closes at $1.23 per share.


June 26: Sen. Charles Schumer (D-NY) writes to regulators, warning, "I am concerned that a significant move by IndyMac's depositors to redeem their deposits could leave the firm in a disastrous financial situation." Stock closes at 80 cents.


June 27: Volume of trading in IndyMac stock hits 13 million, nearly twice the previous day. Stock closes at 81 cents.


July 1: IndyMac responds to Schumer's letters, saying it is working with regulators to improve its safety and soundness. Stock closes at 65 cents.


July 7: IndyMac alerts the Securities and Exchange Commission that, "The Bank has continued to experience elevated levels of deposit withdrawals since Senator Schumer's public release of his letters to our regulators and key lending counterparties." IndyMac also announces plans to close its mortgage lending business and slash its work force from 7,200 to 3,400 over the next couple of months. Stock closes at 71 cents.


July 8: Volume of trading in IndyMac stock hits 13 million, more than double the previous day. Stock closes at 44 cents.


July 11: Federal regulators seize IndyMac Bank. Withdrawals over the last two weeks total $1.3 billion. Stock closes at 28 cents.


—Scott Horsley

In Depth

A look at some of the questions raised by IndyMac's failure, including what deposits the federal government insures, and what other banks may be at risk.

Biggest U.S. Bank Failures

Four of the top 10 biggest failed U.S. banks and thrifts were based in California.


1. Continental Illinois National Bank, Chicago (1984) - $40 billion in assets


2. IndyMac Bank, Pasadena, Calif. (2008) - $32.2 billion (as of March 31)


3. American Savings & Loan, Stockton, Calif. (1988) - $30.2 billion


4. First RepublicBank, Dallas (1988) - $17.1 billion


5. Bank of New England, Boston (1991) - $13.4 billion


6. Gibraltar Savings, Simi Valley, Calif. (1989) - $13.4 billion


7. HomeFed Bank, San Diego (1992) - $12.2 billion


8. Southeast Bank, Miami (1991) - $11.0 billion


9. Goldome, Buffalo, N.Y. (1991) - $9.9 billion


10. City Savings (1989) Somerset, N.J. - $9.8 billion


Source: FDIC

Customers who waited hours in line to withdraw money from the failed IndyMac Bank are now finding they may have to wait even longer to gain access to their cash. Some other banks are requiring lengthy holds on IndyMac cashier's checks. Federal regulators say they're looking into the situation.

IndyMac was taken over by regulators last Friday after a run on the troubled bank. Depositors withdrew more than $1 billion from IndyMac in the two weeks before its doors were closed.

Leon Rousso of Ventura, Calif., grew worried about the bank's condition after a steep drop in IndyMac's stock price.

"A young fellow in my office told me there was a 40 cent drop in the stock market on IndyMac," Rousso said. "When I went back to review everything, because I hadn't been watching that closely, it didn't look good."

A 'Lucky' Withdrawal

Rousso oversees the finances for a local nonprofit group that had about $250,000 in its IndyMac account. Rousso strongly encouraged his fellow directors to withdraw the funds last week.

"They were kind of wishy-washy, back and forth," he said. But Rousso insisted, and the organization took its money out.

"Fortuitously, that was Thursday, they day before they seized the bank," Rousso said. "So it worked out really well. They think I'm a big hero and a genius. But I'm not really a genius. Just got lucky."

A Loss Of Confidence

Other nervous depositors were also pulling money out of IndyMac, and that loss of confidence created a vicious cycle. Early last week, IndyMac warned the Securities and Exchange Commission that it was suffering from "elevated levels of withdrawals." That warning triggered the stock drop that wound up spooking Rousso.

Twelve days earlier, Sen. Charles Schumer (D-NY), a member of the Senate Banking Committee, had written to bank regulators warning that "a significant move by IndyMac's depositors to redeem their deposits could leave the firm in a disastrous financial situation." Once those letters became public, Schumer's worst fears were realized.

"The irony in this whole situation is that Sen. Schumer was trying to warn about a run on the bank, when that very warning helped cause a run on the bank," said bank analyst Jaret Seiberg of the Stanford Group in Washington.

A Run On Deposits

In the two weeks after Schumer's warning, anxious IndyMac depositors withdrew $1.3 billion. Regulators suggested the senator was partly to blame for the bank's collapse.

"In effect, the deposit run sparked by the senator's letter pushed IndyMac over the edge," said Office of Thrift Supervision Director John Reich after the bank was seized. "Would the institution have failed without the deposit run? We'll never know the answer to that question. It's true that IndyMac was already a troubled institution in precarious condition. The deposit run precluded the possibility of IndyMac recovering from this condition."

Schumer, who chairs the powerful Joint Economic Committee, was quick to defend his role, saying IndyMac wouldn't have been in jeopardy had regulators gotten tough on the bank years earlier.

"They're doing what the Bush administration always does: Blame the fire on the person who calls 911," Schumer said.

'Hot Money'

Critics suggest that Schumer effectively poured gasoline on the fire. But it's also clear that IndyMac was tinder-dry and ready to burn. The bank had aggressively courted depositors with above-average interest rates in order to fund its mortgage business after Wall Street money dried up. Depositors who turn to a bank just for high interest rates are quick to run at the first sign of trouble.

"What you're referring to is what in the banking world is called 'hot money,'" said bank analyst Jamie Peters of Morningstar. "If you compare an IndyMac depositor to somebody, say at Wells Fargo, who has an average of eight different products with the company, IndyMac's were much more prone to leave."

Federal regulators say they're paying close attention to banks that rely too heavily on any one source of funds. And they're encouraging banks to respond quickly to any rumors of big withdrawals.