Tom Burke started out his career as a firebrand environmental activist. Then he decided to pursue an environmental agenda from behind the scenes. Today, he's an adviser to mining company Rio Tinto and the British government.
Tom Burke looks at climate change from an unusual point of view. He's one of Britain's leading environmentalists — and he works for one of the world's largest mining companies, Rio Tinto. He is also a close adviser to the British government. In seeking ways to deal with climate change, he knows he needs to find a solution that will appeal to the public, business and government. Here, a look at Burke's thinking on realistic ways to tackle global warming:
Europe has made a decision that global warming in excess of 2 degrees Celsius (4 F) represents "dangerous interference" with the world's climate. The Earth is already 0.7 C (1.25 F) hotter than it was a century ago. And oceans have warmed, too; as they gradually let out some of that heat over the coming century, another 0.6 C (1.1 F) could be added to the global air temperature. That means we are already close to Europe's worry zone. Population growth and increased energy use will push us to that limit in just a few decades. The definition of "dangerous interference" is a political call — there's no strict scientific definition. A treaty signed by President George H.W. Bush in 1992 compels those who signed to avoid "dangerous anthropogenic interference" with the climate system, but the United States has so far not defined what it considers "dangerous interference."
Burke has a back-of-the-envelope estimate that it will cost about $100 billion a year to make power clean. That's about what the United States spends on the Iraq war, he says. That figure is optimistic. Britain's chief economist, Nicholas Stern, for example, estimates that addressing climate change would cost about 1 percent of global economic output. That's about $650 billion a year in current terms. (Stern's analysis says it's worth spending that money to avoid the worst consequences of climate change).
How to Get China Onboard
The U.S. Senate rejected the Kyoto climate treaty because China was not obligated to reduce its emissions under the initial agreement. China will soon overtake the United States as the leading emitter of greenhouse gases. Climate change cannot be solved if both the United States and China (and everyone else) don't agree to cut emissions sharply. Burke's view is that we need to find a solution that will allow China to continue its rapid economic growth, which is based heavily on burning coal. He favors rapid development of technologies to capture and store carbon dioxide as a solution.
Carbon capture could solve emissions from coal-fired power plants, but CO2 can't be captured from the gas- and oil-fired furnaces that heat homes, Burke says. The world needs to reduce emissions by 80 percent to stabilize the climate. To do that, eventually we will need to move to electric heating. Reducing the risk to the climate will cost consumers, but it will be a big business opportunity.
Burke has maintained his reputation as a straight shooter among environmentalists. His message is the same, whether he's talking to government officials, company executives or his friends in the environmental movement. For example, he's still opposed to nuclear power, even though Rio Tinto owns and operates two major uranium mines. Nuclear plants don't emit greenhouse gases. But Burke says nuclear power is uneconomical and can't be scaled up fast enough to make a big dent in emissions. — Richard Harris
As part of NPR's yearlong Climate Connections series, All Things Considered wants to bring you profiles of people who are bringing about change at a local, national or global level.
If you know of someone who is making a difference in the climate-change debate, we would like to hear about them and their work. We may end up telling their story on air.
Send us your suggestions.
In his efforts to tackle global warming, Tom Burke wears many hats. He's a businessman at one of the world's largest mining companies, as well as an adviser to the British government.
And at heart, he's an environmental activist.
But Burke is a pragmatist in the corporate world and the halls of government. He doesn't plan to give up his creature comforts and he doesn't expect that others will, either. He lives in a swank London apartment that opens onto a Japanese garden, complete with waterfall and carp pool. From the balcony, he could easily pitch an olive pit from a martini into the Thames River; though he prefers to drink scotch and fine wines.
Burke's lofty apartment is filled with books and art, much of it the work of painter Alan Rankle. Pointing to the misty Turner-esque landscapes marred by broad brushstrokes of blue and titanium white, Burke says, "They communicate what's happening to the planet in a way that strikes people in their stomach, not in their head, and therefore it creates an impulse to do something, as opposed to an idea to think about."
He spends every waking day trying to do the same thing, whether he's working for the mining company or the British government or as an environmentalist. Today, Burke has short-cropped gray hair that frames his round face. But back in the early 1970s, he was a firebrand environmental activist, leading campaigns to save the whales and fighting nuclear power, eventually as leader of Friends of the Earth in the United Kingdom.
"There's a limit to campaigning," he says. "Environmentalism is an opera, and there are lots of different songs to be sung in it, and I'd in a sense sung the campaigning song. I wanted to go sing the political song."
He ran twice for Parliament with a green agenda. He lost. So he decided to pursue an environmental agenda behind the scenes. And, as the science about climate change grew, global warming became Burke's central issue.
"We still for the most part think of this as just another environmental problem, and it's not," he says. "This is a problem which, if we don't fundamentally solve it in the next two decades, could make civilization impossible."
Dealing with climate change isn't impossible, but it is daunting. Societies have to change the way they generate power for the global economy, Burke says. He doesn't think on a small scale. His lamps still have conventional light bulbs, for instance. And although, at the age of 60, he could get a free pass for London's buses and the underground, he instead rides a beefy BMW motorcycle a few miles to his office at the mining company.
Looping past the Globe Theatre, crossing the Thames and turning past Trafalgar Square — the old center of the British Empire, where Burke has organized many demonstrations — he pulls his motorcycle into the garage at the offices of Rio Tinto, one of the world's largest mining companies.
Rio Tinto has huge coal and uranium mines in its energy division, and its operations for processing aluminum and copper ores consume vast amounts of electricity. A company video reminds viewers that the world economy is growing rapidly and, with it, our appetite for power.
"I started out wanting to work for any company, not a mining company in particular, because I wanted to learn how the corporate sector worked," Burke says. "Another good reason for doing it is to get a mining company to work for me, and to some extent, I've been able to do that."
A few years ago, for example, Burke suggested that the company hire a top executive to deal specifically with climate change issues.
"It didn't do that because I said, 'Boy, you've got to do that,'" he says. "It did that because when you debated the issues internally, it became pretty clear that that was a sensible way to proceed. You're not going to abandon the coal industry, but nor were you going to think that it's business as usual and we don't give a damn."
Burke says there's no way countries are going to stop burning coal. So he's trying to get companies and governments together to capture the carbon dioxide emitted by power plants and put it under the ground instead of into the air.
"There is no question that we can afford to do this, should we choose to," he says. "If you ask me what I think are the prospects of that, I think they're slim. But they're political problems, they're not technological or economic problems."
To that end, Burke spends one day a week as an adviser to the British government. "The fact that they're a 15-minute's walk away is quite convenient for me," he says, leaving the Rio Tinto office and walking through St. James' Park toward Whitehall. "But actually, you can't solve the problem without being able to move from government to business and business to government."
Burke's political challenge is to get governments to think beyond their parochial interests. Right now, climate negotiations are actually a surrogate for other issues, with countries like the United States and China jockeying for economic advantage. But Burke says, given the stakes, we need to think bigger. He says that the Kyoto Protocol and taxes on carbon emissions won't fix the problem.
"The idea that we can get the price right and somehow it'll all fall into place is just completely stupid," he says.
Burke says countries must spend money to combat climate change, just as we spend money on health care and defense. And the public needs to convince politicians of that need. But that will require a shift in values.
"Behavioral change is culturally driven, not economically driven," he says. "And that's something that the people trying to deal with climate change have not actually grasped." Still, Burke remains cautious of going too far in regulating behavior, mentioning dictators like Hitler and Stalin, whose social engineering projects ravaged their societies.
"All I'm trying to understand is: How do you deal with a problem that could literally make it impossible for us to continue to live in the way we do, without reaching that level? I don't know. I'm not counsel of comfort here."
At the United Kingdom's Foreign Office, Burke has an appointment with Foreign Secretary Margaret Beckett. Burke has the advantage of working with a government that's a leading voice in climate change policy. But he's not deluding himself.
"I have no hope, in the sense of the outcome coming right away. That's not why I'm doing it," he says. "I'm doing it because you see the problem, and not to try to do something when you see the problem would be a moral failure."
Burke says his job, really, is to draw out that feeling in all of us — to tap into what Lincoln called the better angels of our nature, and to do it before our world is as horribly transformed as it is in the paintings he awakens to every day.