This Saturday marks the centennial of the birth of Benny Goodman. The band leader and clarinetist became known as the King of Swing.

Now, John McDonough takes us back to the swing era. He says Benny Goodman's sudden fame was triggered by cultural forces in the 1930s.

JOHN McDONOUGH: Great performers occasionally become great stars because they actually are great. But stardom often reflects many simmering impulses awaiting a rallying point. When they converge, each amplifies the other, sparking a kind of critical mass.

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McDONOUGH: This homemade Edison Cylinder catches Benny Goodman at the age of 16. It was 1926 and he was already a virtuoso of that new style called jazz. But jazz would go deep underground in the early '30s. For most of that time, Goodman would build a career playing well below his capacities for a succession of commercial bosses. Their principal instrument was the baton. If you turned on the radio then, you might have heard something like this:

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Unidentified Man: Shep Fields and his rippling rhythm orchestra.

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McDONOUGH: It seemed unfair that the least accomplished musician should be telling the most accomplished ones what to do. It made Goodman a frustrated, restless and often prickly employee. If any of this was to change, someone would have to break the model of those prissy, sweet bands. By 1934, Goodman decided that maybe it could be him.

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That summer, he put together his first big band, and by December, it had become one of three selected by NBC to play on its new weekly "Let's Dance" program.

In this three-hour Saturday night bash, Goodman's swing music rotated with the waltzes of Kel Murray and the rumbas of Xavier Cugat. "Let's Dance" would be Goodman's first national exposure, and he came at America like a missile.

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Every age has its unique cultural spirit. In ways that are unknowable in the moment, its invisible hand is at work. Goodman's moment came in an uncanny convergence with a sudden burst of modernity that seemed to find expression in the sleek perfection of his clarinet.

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Just as Goodman made swing a national sensation, the Chrysler Airflow brought streamlining to the American automobile. The first Zephyrs took to the rails. The integrated curves of the DC-3 replaced the boxy Ford Trimotors in the air. Even common household appliances began turning into teardrop shaped projectiles.

Each mirrored a new aerodynamic physics that promised a future of speed, efficiency and beauty. What the machine had wrought, artists and designers were now shaping into metaphors for flight — some decorative, some functional, all implying movement, even when standing still. It was streamlining.

And Benny Goodman, though no student of design, was a direct extension of that sensibility into music.

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Unidentified Man #2: From the largest place in the West, we present the swing music of Benny Goodman and his orchestra.

McDONOUGH: When the "Let's Dance" show ended in May 1935, Goodman went on the road to find his audience. In one of the more storied legends of jazz, he found it at the Palomar Ballroom in Los Angeles and sealed his fame at the Congress Hotel in Chicago. He came to the Congress in November still a work in progress. Six months later, he was world famous as the King of Swing and the whole country was talking about his music.

Unidentified Man #3: What is swing? You can never replace the horns(ph). Let America listen. Let America judge. Let swing speak for itself. Everybody's talking it. Everybody's swinging it. It's the rage. It's the craze. Let the king of swing swing it. Benny Goodman, the King of Swing, makes the case for America's most controversial music, playing tonight from the Congress Hotel in Chicago. Take it, Chicago, and swing it, Benny Goodman.

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McDONOUGH: Goodman's breakthrough became a kind of Magna Carta for a generation of young virtuosos. Swing meant that the best musicians not only could be leaders, but should be leaders. Soon, Artie Shaw, Count Basie and others would join Goodman at the top. As for Goodman, he came to know the primal power his clarinet could have over a crowd. Down Beat called it frightening.

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In taking jazz from the underground to the hit parade, Goodman not only brought its true creators to wide attention. He gave young musicians popular license not just to play a song but to take it apart, transform it, improvise on it, make it their own and, if they liked, write their own songs.

Before Goodman, working musicians were essentially agents for other people's music. Jazz made them an active creative force. It's a license the rock generation renews regularly today.

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For NPR News, this is John McDonough.

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