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Thanks to a book published 150 years ago, we have a concept for the story we just heard: survival of the fittest. Competition, evolution; adapt or die, earlier versions falling by the wayside. Charles Darwin was talking about biology, of course, in �On the Origin of Species.� It was a science book called the most important ever written. And as NPR's Joe Palca reports, it may be more controversial today than it was when it appeared on this date in 1859.

JOE PALCA: The notion that species evolved from simpler forms was not a new one in 1859. There had already been several books, by then, suggesting this radical idea.

Mr. JIM ENDERSBY (History of science, University of Sussex): The most famous example being a book that came out in Victorian Britain in 1844 � an anonymous best-seller. It was called �The Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation.�

PALCA: Jim Endersby is a historian of science at the University of Sussex in England. He says vestiges may have captured the popular imagination, but it was lambasted by scientists for its multiple factual errors and by the clergy for its affront to religious dogma. Endersby says Darwin's book got a much more positive reception.

Mr. ENDERSBY: What really impressed people with Darwin's work was not the idea itself, but the book. It was the fact that there was so much detail, so much evidence.

PALCA: And it wasn't just scientists who liked the new theory. Popular history holds that the church's condemnation of Darwin was immediate and universal. Endersby says it's not that simple. For example, Endersby says Darwin sent a copy of his book to one of the leading members of the Church of England, the Reverend Charles Kingsley.

Mr. ENDERSBY: And Kingsley writes back to say, you know, it's just as noble a conception of God to think that he created animals and plants that then evolved, that were capable of self-development, as it is to imagine that God has to constantly create new forms and fill in the gaps that he's left in his own creation. And Darwin is very pleased with this quote, and with Kingsley's permission he has it quoted in the next edition of "The Origin."

PALCA: The relationship between science and religion was changing when the first edition of "The Origin" appeared in 1859. Jim Secord directs the Darwin Correspondence Project at Cambridge University.

Mr. JIM SECORD: Traditionally, a lot of clerics had actually been leading scientists, and part of the process of developing the idea of science being a separate career or profession in its own right was in some sense to move away from that. And that's part of where those sign of tensions really arise.

PALCA: So when scientists start debating Darwin's ideas about evolution, they're keen to take the debate out of the church.

Mr. SECORD: So you start seeing people say, well, let's think about this as a scientific question. That's really what it is. Leave the theology. That'll work itself out in some sort of way.

PALCO: Of course, the theology doesn't always work itself out. Just look at the strong anti-evolution sentiment in certain religions in this country. Secord says "The Origin of Species" didn't create the rift between science and religion, but it was right there when the rift was opening 150 years ago.

Mr. SECORD: These debates about science and religion, if anything, have actually increased in the last 10, 20 years. And so Darwin is really a big talking point for these kinds of questions. And I think people read Darwin and look to Darwin in some sense as a kind of fault line for these kind of continuing controversies.

PALCO: In the decades following the 1859 publication, support for Darwin's theory grew in all quarters. But historian Jim Endersby believes that at least some of that support was based on a misunderstanding of Darwin's ideas. He says there is no predetermined endpoint in the theory of evolution by natural selection, no way progress is supposed to go.

But Endersby says some people in England misinterpreted the idea of survival of the fittest to mean some people were meant to survive.

Mr. ENDERSBY: So the English would read the book, and it's no surprise that English - that the English made Darwin a hero in England and buried him in the headquarters of the Church of England, because they read this as saying, Look, we the English are top nation because we're superior; that is why we have the largest empire the world has ever seen, that's why we had the first industrial revolution, that's why we're so rich and powerful. Thank you, Mr. Darwin - you have told us the scientific explanation for what we already know. We're the best.

PALCO: They still treat Darwin as a hero in England. So maybe now that England's international stature is diminished, the English have come to a more nuanced understanding of his theory. Or not.

Unidentified People: (Singing) The English, the English, the English are best. I wouldn't give talents for all of the rest.

(Soundbite of laughter)

PALCO: Joe Palco, NPR News.

Unidentified People: (Singing) �of these islands of ours, we've lifted the hands of three unfriendly powers. Examine the Irishman, Welshman or Scot, you'll find he's a stinker as likely as not.

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