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Also this week, Congress is expected to take up what is called the DREAM Act. Thats the legislation that would give some people, in this country illegally, a path toward citizenship. It is aimed at illegal immigrants who were brought here as children by their parents.

They would qualify for legal residency if they complete two years of college or two years of military service.

Critics say this is amnesty, as NPR's Brian Naylor reports.

BRIAN NAYLOR: The DREAM Act is aimed at people like Cesar Vargas. He's a third year law student at CCNY in New York. He was brought here from Mexico, by his parents at age five.

He graduated from high school with honors, and wants to join the armed forces, to give back, he says, to his country, the U.S.

Mr. CESAR VARGAS (Law Student): I also plan to join the military and join the Marine Corps, either as a JAG officer in the Judge Advocate Corps or intelligence officer. So it's definitely giving back to my country. That's my core value and that's what the DREAM Act will do.

NAYLOR: Vargas is one of some two million young people who would qualify for legal residency under the DREAM Act. They would have to have entered the country by age 16, pass a background check, graduate from high school, and attend college for two years or join the armed forces. Frank Sharry is director of America's Voice, which favors the bill.

Mr. FRANK SHARRY (Director, America's Voice): These are the best and the brightest of the Latino immigrant community and other ethnic communities, and all they want to do is to live the American dream so that they can contribute to a nation that they call home.

NAYLOR: The measure has the support of Democratic congressional leaders, as well as the Obama administration. In a conference call with reporters last week, Homeland Security Secretary Janet Napolitano said her agency should spend its resources tracking down in her words, criminal aliens, threats to public safety and national security.

Secretary JANET NAPOLITANO (Department of Homeland Security): What doesn't makes as much sense is the idea of spending our enforcement resources to prosecute young people who have no criminal records, who were brought here through no fault of their own so they have no individual culpability, and who now want to go to college or serve in our armed forces.

NAYLOR: Supporters of the DREAM Act are well organized. They've been staging protests in Congressional offices, holding candlelight vigils, and running campaign style ads, such as this one airing in Massachusetts.

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Unidentified Woman (Announcer): The military small businesses and 66 percent of voters support the DREAM Act. Senator Brown, where do you stand?

NAYLOR: But the target of this ad, Republican Senator Scott Brown, is unconvinced. He's released a statement calling the DREAM Act a form of amnesty. The measure is a political priority for Democrats. Senate Majority leader Harry Reid promised to bring the DREAM Act up for a vote during his successful re-election campaign, in which support from Latinos played a key role. Roy Beck, is director of Numbers USA, which opposes the bill.

Mr. ROY BECK (Director, Numbers USA): This is a last ditch kind of political stunt that Pelosi and Reid have made some promises to some groups. They've got everything all stirred up. They're going to cause an incredible amount of disappointment among a lot of students around the country on something that never had a chance.

NAYLOR: Opponents say the DREAM Act is likely to cost some $6 billion a year, a charge backers say doesn't add up, and that it will mean fewer jobs for U.S. born workers. Republican Senator Jeff Sessions of Alabama:

Senator JEFF SESSIONS (Republican, Alabama): American people did not vote for an amnesty in this past election. And it will be resisted with every strength and every ability that I have to do so. Because this is a lame duck Congress, it will not pass next year, and it's not going to pass this year if I have anything to do about it.

NAYLOR: And Sessions may well have his way. It appears unlikely the DREAM Act has enough votes in the Senate to win approval in the remaining days of this Congress.

Brian Naylor, NPR News, Washington.

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