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Among the casualties of Egypt's revolution are many of its famous historical sites and artifacts. Vandalism and looting skyrocketed in the weeks after Egyptian police, including those responsible for tourism and protecting antiquities, vanished from their posts. Even now, as security forces resume their duties, archaeologists and experts complain that more needs to be done by Egypt's new government to protect the country's heritage.
NPR's Soraya Sarhaddi Nelson reports that Cairo's Egyptian Museum suffered some of the worst damage.
SORAYA SARHADDI NELSON: Life is slowly returning to normal at this museum that is home to famous ancient Egyptian artifacts, like the golden mask of the Boy King, Tutankhamen.
Unidentified Woman: The mummy of King Tutankhamen was placed inside of a coffin out of pure gold.
SARHADDI NELSON: Tourists, who are slowly returning, see few signs of the damage and looting that took place here in late January.
MAHMOUD E: (Foreign language spoken)
SARHADDI NELSON: But deputy museum director, Mahmoud el Halwagi, says it feels like it happened yesterday. The veteran curator cringes when he recounts the events. The ruling party's headquarters next door was set ablaze. Thousands of protesters flooded nearby Tahrir Square and clashed with the police. They in turn fled.
Halwagi says the chaos provided the perfect cover for the thieves and vandals who climbed onto the museum roof.
HALWAGI: The looters were able to come down from this window with a cable, electric cable. And one of them were - fall down on this showcase and it was broken, and he was injured. And we found his blood on the floor, and it still remains on the artifacts.
SARHADDI NELSON: He pauses at another glass display case he says was one of 13 that had to be replaced.
HALWAGI: This showcase was broken. And now, as you see, this is a new glass. There was artifacts like these, similar was here.
SARHADDI NELSON: He points to a painted wooden statue inside, one of King Tut astride a leopard. A second one is no longer there, he says.
HALWAGI: I think they thought that this is gold.
SARHADDI NELSON: That the King Tut was gold.
HALWAGI: Yeah. Yeah. Because it's gilded wood.
SARHADDI NELSON: Frustrated, the thieves smashed it, then continued their search for gold and jewelry inside the museum, Halwagi says. They got none, he adds, because those items were locked behind iron gates the thieves couldn't break through.
Halwagi says the broken statue is being restored in the museum's laboratory. He adds a teenage protester brought back a 16-inch limestone statue that he found laying outside in Tahrir Square.
During the unrest, civilian volunteers who feared for the museum formed a human cordon around the building despite the risks of being in the volatile square, says Fayza Haikal, a professor of Egyptology at the American University in Cairo.
FAYZA HAIKAL: The people, the citizens, organized themselves to protect their antiquities. And this is not only in the Cairo Museum, but in many places in Egypt it happened.
SARHADDI NELSON: The Egyptian military also stepped in, taking over law enforcement, and eventually, the leadership of the country. But Haikal and others say there simply weren't enough soldiers to protect all of Egypt's antiquities and sites. Even with the police returning, experts complain that looting continues, especially from storerooms at Egypt's many remote ancient monuments and digs.
SARHADDI NELSON: Egypt's antiquities chief quit in protest over the transitional government's failure to address the issue. Another top official, museum Director Tarek al-Awadi, says he drafted a petition signed by thousands of archaeologists worldwide who are demanding that the Egyptian government make protecting the country's historical sites and antiquities a top priority.
TAREK A: This heritage should be protected by everyone in Egypt and outside Egypt, because this is for the whole world. It's the heritage of mankind.
SARHADDI NELSON: A UNESCO team is reported to be in Egypt this week to assess the damage and offer help.
Soraya Sarhaddi Nelson, NPR News, Cairo.
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