STEVE INSKEEP, Host:
In some Chicago neighborhoods, children live with a culture of violence that can seep into the schools. To counter this, Chicago's school district launched a program called Culture of Calm in 38 troubled high schools. The district hopes the $18 million effort will help to reduce violence inside and outside schools.
As part of our weeklong series, Linda Lutton of member station WBEZ has this report.
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LINDA LUTTON: Changing the culture of a place is not an easy assignment. At Manley Career Academy High School on Chicago's poverty-racked West Side, a lot of the hard work is happening in Room 113, which this year is known as the Peace Room. Student Sharell Jones is here because she wants to explode.
SHARELL JONES: I'm trying to stay out of trouble because it is my senior year, and I have improved more on my attitude. I have not been in no fights. Arguments, yeah, but no fights.
LUTTON: But today, Sharell is tested. A boy threw juice on her friend, then hurled an insult. The friend is eight months pregnant, and the spat turned physical. Now, Peace Room staffer Ilana Zafran is trying to keep the fight from going any further.
ILANA ZAFRAN: I know for a fact that there's been other times this year when you felt like that - maybe not this strongly, but you've been able to stop yourself from doing it, right? So you can control what happens in this situation in terms of the fights, right? What are other things you could do besides get back at this guy and his friends?
LUTTON: A third of Manley students have visited the Peace Room to resolve conflicts with other students or teachers this year. Eighty percent have come before any physical fight.
ZAFRAN: So that if a student's starting to get angry, teachers, security staff know this is a space where students can come. We'll de-escalate, talk to them about stuff, and we have the resources to be able to do that around students this year.
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LUTTON: Manley is one of six focus schools getting around a million dollars for its culture transformation. The initiative is putting every aspect of the school under a microscope, from the way kids enter the building - through just one door this year...
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LUTTON: ...to the way Manley reintegrates students who've been out of the school because they were shot. Yes, that's something this school has to deal with.
Josh Gray coordinates the district's anti-violence initiatives.
JOSH GRAY: You know when you walk into a school and you can generally tell within the first five or 10 minutes is: Does this school have a good culture? And by a good culture, I mean a culture in which learning can take place.
LUTTON: Many Chicago high schools struggle on a daily basis with fights. Some of them become melees outside after school, like the one in which 16-year-old Derrion Albert was beaten to death in 2009.
Different schools are taking different paths to their calmer cultures. Some have tightened requirements on uniforms or banned cell phones. One school is isolating its troublemakers in single-sex classrooms, where they stay most of the day.
Many of Manley's Culture of Calm efforts are being led by the Umoja Student Development Corporation, a nonprofit housed inside Manley. And dialing down conflict is a theme. Bekah Epstein teaches English and drama. She's been to lots of workshops this year showing teachers how to avoid confrontation with students.
BEKAH EPSTEIN: I had this happen to me this morning. I have a girl who was wearing a hat, came into class. And it's as simple as saying, hey, good morning. Great to see you, and pointing to my head so she knows to take her hat off. And rather than making it, you know you're not supposed to have your hat on. Take that hat off right now, young lady - you know, removing the negative without it ever becoming a conversation or an issue at all.
LUTTON: Researcher Elaine Allensworth of the Consortium on Chicago School Research. She says two upcoming studies both show the district is right to focus on school culture.
ELAINE ALLENSWORTH: Schools that are serving the same types of students with the same backgrounds can have very different climates. And what ends up being the most important, by far, is the quality of relationships that students have with teachers and that teachers have with parents.
LUTTON: Manley wants every kid to connect with at least one adult in the school this year. Advisory periods once a week are meant to foster that and give students a chance to check in.
James Walton is Manley's principal.
JAMES WALTON: Good morning. How you doing?
The way I'm able to tell if my school is calm is just stand in the hallway, and I just listen. When I can see my security kind of just looking up and down the hall, walking, without really having to go to a situation, you know, those kinds of things indicate that, you know, it's a calmer environment.
LUTTON: Walton says Culture of Calm money has finally allowed him to give students basic services they need this year - like a full-time social worker and psychologist. Walton remembers last year a student found out at Manley that her sibling had just been killed.
WALTON: But there was no one to take her to. We had nothing. That happened more than one time.
LUTTON: This year, Children's Memorial Hospital is running trauma and anger management groups at school. A mentoring initiative is giving intensive attention to kids who are more likely to get wrapped up in violence.
There have been painful reminders this year, though, of what Manley is up against. Walton buried one of his students this fall. He was shot a few miles from school. Walton says he isn't sure whether a calm culture inside Manley can reduce youth violence where it plays out, on the streets.
WALTON: I don't know what I can do about outside. But what I know I can do is to give you the tools and the mechanisms in my building that maybe you can take outside and begin to utilize.
LUTTON: Manley is on track to cut student misconducts almost in half this year, though some take these numbers with a grain of salt. Culture of Calm hadn't even gotten started last May when the district announced a 77 percent plunge in disciplinary problems at the target schools. Chicago school officials say the University of Chicago's Crime Lab will ultimately measure whether its efforts are working.
Until then, they hope calmer cultures in high schools will stick, even after money for the initiative runs out this summer.
For NPR News, I'm Linda Lutton.
INSKEEP: Now, the hours just after school can be the most dangerous for children. And tomorrow, we have the story on an initiative that aims to change that.