RENEE MONTAGNE, host:

Commentator Mark Lachs knows about all of this. He's a gerontologist. He has a patient with her own ideas about how to have a healthy old age.

Dr. MARK LACHS (Gerontologist): One question I get a lot is: How old is your oldest patient? Answer: 109.

The next question is usually something like: What nursing home is he or she in? Answer: She is living at home, with all her marbles, completely engaged in the world around her.

And the last question: What is her fountain of youth? A thousand calories a day and an hour of yoga?

No. Helen Reichert likes chocolate truffles, and her favorite beverage is Budweiser. And she once announced to me that she was thinking about smoking again. When I protested, she reminded me that she's outlived several of her doctors and said, butt out.

So what's going on here? Well, unusual longevity often has a genetic basis, and Helen's family probably does have a longevity gene. But she also exhibits a powerful trait we geriatricians call adaptive competence.

Simply put, it's the ability to bounce back from stress. Many scientists view this solely as biological stress. But those of us who actually care for older people see adaptive competence as psychologically critical as well.

You don't get to be 109 without life hurling a few curve balls at you, and Helen has had more than her share: bereavement, some medical problems, gender discrimination. And after each of these, she simply dusts herself off and moves on.

A few years back, she had a small stroke that affected her language. I don't think I've seen a patient of any age tackle speech therapy the way she did. And during her last visit, she asked me if I would consider taking on a new patient: her 103-year-old brother, who goes to work nearly every day - another adaptively competent centenarian.

We all know people like this of every age. And we also know the other guy: the pessimist for whom even small life disruptions produce out-of-proportion suffering and - dare I say - whining.

Social scientists are studying these traits, and the theory holds up. My colleague Becca Levy, at Yale, has studied the longevity of people in their 50s - that's adolescence compared to my patients - as a function of their perceptions about aging.

She asked if they agreed with statements like, things keep getting worse as I get older; or, as you get older, you are less useful. Even after she controlled for their medical conditions, subjects who agreed with ideas like these died, on average, seven and a half years sooner than their glass-half-full counterparts.

So if you're a boomer and you don't think your outlook on aging has any impact on the rest of your life, you might want to brighten your attitude a bit.

The other striking thing about Helen is her self-deprecating sense of humor. A few years back, her alma mater wrote to her. You are our oldest living alum, and we're delighted to offer you a lifetime subscription to our magazine. Helen scribbled five indignant words on their letter and mailed it back: How incredibly generous of you.

MONTAGNE: Commentator Mark Lachs is director of geriatrics for the New York Presbyterian Health Care System, and professor of medicine at Weill Cornell Medical College. His new book is called "Treat Me, Not My Age."

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