MARY LOUISE KELLY, host:
In Libya's neighbor Tunisia, thousands of people fled after the country's revolution back in January. Most of them traveled across the Mediterranean, landing in Europe. This has created friction within the European Union, where the recently arrived migrants are testing the notion of a united Europe.
NPR's Sylvia Poggioli reports on a showdown at the French-Italian border.
SYLVIA POGGIOLI: In recent weeks, France has sent some 2,000 Tunisians back to Italy. It rejects Rome's decision to issue six-month permits to the 25,000 Tunisians who have landed on its shores since January.
(Soundbite of train)
POGGIOLI: When a train from Italy pulls into Menton-Garavan station, French anti-riot policemen are waiting to board. They single out a small group of dark-skinned young men and take them in for questioning.
On Sunday, fearing anti-globalist protests, France temporarily blocked all trains from Italy.
The mood in Menton, like the rest of France, is not welcoming for new arrivals. The beachfront promenade extends for miles, ideal for jogging and leisurely walks. This elderly stroller has made the Riviera her retirement home.
Unidentified Woman: There are so many Tunisians here, there so many other people, you know, and it's becoming more and more aggressive. Myself - I don't go out at night now. I'm afraid. I don't think it is correct, what the Italian government is doing.
POGGIOLI: Like several other people here, she won't give her name for fear of reprisals, but says she is Greek-born with a British passport, living in France, and calls herself European.
But across the border in Ventimiglia, Tunisian migrants are questioning the notion of a borderless Europe. Lizar Taher is a Tunisian student.
Mr. LIZAR TAHER (Student): (Through translator) If Italy is a member of the EU, why does France say no, why does Germany say no?
POGGIOLI: After a hazardous sea journey from Tunisia to the island of Lampedusa, hundreds of migrants gather here at the border. They sleep in the train station on cardboard sheets. They're waiting for temporary travel permits, issued, Rome says, for humanitarian reasons.
But France says all migrants must have a valid passport and hold sufficient sums of cash. Jamel Hakimi says that's an impossible demand.
Mr. JAMEL HAKIMI: (Through translator) If you have a place to sleep, you need 30 euros a day - that's 2,700 euros for three months. And for those with no place to sleep, it's 5,600 euros for three months. They're blocking us all.
POGGIOLI: It's not just France that doesn't want them - Austria and Belgium also threatened to close their borders and deploy anti-riot police. A German official went so far as to accuse Italy of blackmailing its EU allies - a method, he said, typical of the mafia.
Italian Foreign Minister Franco Frattini accused the EU of shirking its collective responsibilities.
Mr. FRANCO FRATTINI (Italian Foreign Minister): Not France, not Italy, not Germany - Europe - and Europe is doing nothing about it. So Europe is divided. European integration failed on immigration.
POGGIOLI: Premier Silvio Berlusconi went further, wondering whether there was any sense in remaining within the European Union - an unprecedented remark in the EU's 50-year history, which some analysts say helps foment fears and bolster the government on the extreme right.
Unidentified Man: (Speaking Italian)
POGGIOLI: Callers to the Northern League radio station vent their anger. I'm proud to be a racist, one caller says. We've gotten nothing from Europe. Italy should leave the EU.
The same isolationist neo-nationalism is growing in much of Europe. Extreme right-wing parties are gaining ground - even in old Scandinavian socialist strongholds. The clash over immigration could prove to be the most divisive among the 27 EU member states.
Sylvia Poggioli, NPR News, Rome.
NPR transcripts are created on a rush deadline by a contractor for NPR, and accuracy and availability may vary. This text may not be in its final form and may be updated or revised in the future. Please be aware that the authoritative record of NPR's programming is the audio.