RENEE MONTAGNE, host:
In the developing world, clean drinking water can be the exception rather than the rule. Aid groups say thousands of people die every day, most of them small children, from preventable diseases linked to dirty water. In recent years, the Cambodian capital, Phnom Penh, has managed to provide clean running water to almost everyone there. NPR's Rob Gifford has the story of how they did it.
(Soundbite of running water)
ROB GIFFORD: The sound of running water clean running water is not one you've always been able to hear in the ramshackle lean-tos that pass for homes on the edge of Phnom Penh. The homes are small and dark, with a few boards separating the single bedroom from the main living space. The corrugated iron roof leaks light onto the dirty floor.
But here, 60-year-old Khive Thol is drinking water from the tap.
Ms. KYO THOL (Wife): (Foreign language spoken)
GIFFORD: Before we were connected, we had to boil water from containers, she says. A truck came around every week and we bought the water. I dont know where it came from, she adds, probably from the river. Kyo Thol used to pay one dollar a day for dirty, dangerous water. Now she pays about $4 a month for a faucet in her own home. And so do all her neighbors.
The successes here are largely due to the work of one man and one organization. 61-year-old Ek Sonn Chan, the head of the Phnom Penh Water Supply Authority, or PPWSA.
Mr. EK SONN CHAN (Head of the Phnom Penh Water Supply Authority): In 1994, we had to sit down with the international funds agencies for five days to seek $10 million assistance from them, because your performance so bad. But now, we can stay here and the people come to knock your door, and ask you, you need money. It's completely different.
GIFFORD: Ek Sonn Chan says that in 1993, after four years of rule by the Khmer Rouge and 10 years of occupation by the Vietnamese, only 25 percent of the city had running water, and most of those who had it didnt pay for it. The old pipes leaked, or the water was siphoned off and stolen. Now, 92 percent of households in Phnom Penh have clean running water, a phenomenal feat in such a poor country. And, says Ek Sonn Chan, almost everyone pays on time. He says if Phnom Penh can do it, it's possible anywhere.
Mr. CHAN: I believe, 100 percent, that solving the problems with water to everyone in this world is 100 percent possible. Its not the problems of scarcity of water resources. It's not the lack of financing, but because of lacks of good governance.
GIFFORD: Ek Sonn Chan has been able to bring good governance to the water authority that is not present in much of the rest of Cambodia. In the '90s, he accompanied teams of workers as they went around the city, trying to persuade ordinary Cambodians that installing a water meter and paying for water meant that they would save money and be healthier.
At one point a Cambodian general, who objected to the scheme, held a gun to Ek Sonn Chans head, refusing to pay. But with the help of politicians who supported his scheme, he won over all levels of the city. World water experts have nothing but good to say about him and the PPWSA.
Mr. PER-ARNE MALMQVIST (Water Expert, Stockholm International Water Institute): They have succeeded to do something that not even many cities in the Western world have succeeded to do. What they have done is impressive in itself, and the circumstances is even more impressive.
GIFFORD: Per-Arne Malmqvist is a water expert at the Stockholm International Water Institute in Sweden.
Mr. MALMQVIST: And its not only about technicalities, constructing pipelines and water works. It's also the management of the system, fighting corruption, and having people to pay for the water, which, of course, is very important.
(Soundbite of radio broadcast in foreign language)
GIFFORD: But Phnom Penh is just 1.7 million people in a country of more than 14 million. In rural Cambodia, like this small village near the town of Battambang, they have radios, they often have cell phones - but they frequently still dont have running water.
Mr. SOK HOEN: (Foreign language spoken)
GIFFORD: Forty-eight-year old Sok Hoen makes $2 day selling firewood. He lives in what can only be described as a hovel. Mosquitoes buzz, dogs doze on the dirt floor, and outside are three large jars filled with filthy brown water.
Mr. HOEN: (Foreign language spoken)
GIFFORD: Thats the water we drink, he says. We have to. We put tablets in it to try to purify it, but we still get sick, he says. Multiply his plight by millions for all the rural households across Cambodia, and across the world. The head of the Phnom Penh Water Supply Authority, Ek Sonn Chan, says he has written on a piece of paper above his bed that he will not rest until all of Cambodia has clean running water. He's made an impressive start, but there's still a long, long way left to go.
Rob Gifford, NPR News, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
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