Copyright ©2011 NPR. For personal, noncommercial use only. See Terms of Use. For other uses, prior permission required.

ROBERT SIEGEL, host:

From NPR News, this is ALL THINGS CONSIDERED. I'm Robert Siegel.

MELISSA BLOCK, host:

And I'm Melissa Block.

This summer, we're going to be exploring a set of experiences shared by people in every corner of the world - experiences that are transforming lives in small-town America and in bustling Shanghai; in villages in Pakistan and right here in Washington, D.C.

(Soundbite of a crying baby)

Unidentified Woman #1: Oh, see? Yeah.

BLOCK: We're talking about pregnancy, childbirth and parenthood. Our series is called Beginnings.

SIEGEL: Over the next couple of months, we'll examine how such universal experiences can take dramatically different turns depending on where you are and who you are.

Unidentified Woman #2: His chances are pretty good with him, you know, gaining weight and getting better, right?

SIEGEL: Here in the U.S., we'll look at why African-Americans suffer far higher rates of pre-term birth and infant mortality than average.

BLOCK: We'll visit an in-vitro fertilization clinic in China that's so busy, there's a line of patients out the door every morning. And we'll go to Sweden, where mothers and fathers enjoy some of the most generous parental leave policies anywhere.

Unidentified Man #1: Okay, take some real deep breaths. We're going to take very good care of you.

SIEGEL: We'll give you a front-row seat to fetal surgery, as a pediatric neurosurgeon performs a delicate operation to correct a spinal defect in utero.

Unidentified Man #1: I remember when I did my first one. I mean, I was just awestruck with it - and I was doing it.

(Soundbite of laughter)

SIEGEL: And, Melissa, today you have a story about health challenges of a very different sort in sub-Saharan Africa.

BLOCK: That's right. It's a part of the world, Robert, that has some of the worst outcomes for both mothers and children. The rates of maternal and infant mortality are among the highest in the world. And last month, I went to Mozambique, that's in southeastern Africa, where the numbers are really especially daunting.

A Mozambican woman has a 1-in-37 lifetime risk of maternal death; one in ten children won't live past their first year, and one in seven die before they reach the age of five. So we wanted to find out what might help improve those outcomes.

(Soundbite of conversations)

BLOCK: And we begin in the countryside among a large group of women. They're sitting on the ground in a small community of mud huts in northern Mozambique, Nampula Province. And just about every woman has a baby on her breast, bundled inside a brightly colored cloth called a capulana.

(Soundbite of conversation)

BLOCK: On average, women in Mozambique have five children. And they start having babies when they're very young - as young as 10.

As I talk with the women, I learn about an initiation ritual called okanone, soon after a girl has her first period. It's seen as the end of her childhood. Men know if a girl has had her okanone, even at age 10 or 11, she's considered old enough to have sex and marry.

Ms. PAULINA FRANCISCO (Volunteer Health Worker): (Foreign language spoken)

BLOCK: Paulina Francisco tells me the girls learn a Rhythm of Initiation Dance that teaches them a lot about sex and about how to please a man.

Ms. FRANCISCO: (Foreign language spoken)

BLOCK: She says girls are taught when a man comes and wants to sleep with you, do this, turn this way, turn that way, grab him this way. Amid much merriment, she wiggles her hips for emphasis.

(Soundbite of laughter and cheering)

BLOCK: And did everyone here have an okanone?

Ms. FRANCISCO: (Foreign language spoken)

(Soundbite of laughter)

BLOCK: Paulina Francisco is a volunteer health worker in this community, which is named The 25th of June, after Mozambique's day of independence from Portuguese colonial rule.

The group Save the Children, working with Mozambique's Ministry of Health, has trained village workers like Paulina to help with basic medical care.

The community volunteers visit people in their homes, since for many it's impossible to make the long haul to a health center.

Ms. FRANCISCO: (Foreign language spoken)

BLOCK: Today, Paulina is visiting a young mother named Belita who gave birth to a baby girl in her mud hut just two days before.

(Soundbite of crying baby)

Ms. FRANCISCO: Shhh.

BLOCK: The mom lies alongside her baby on a low cot on the dirt floor. The hut is tiny; dark and sweltering and buzzes with flies.

Paulina rinses her hands, takes the newborn's temperature, then slides her onto a spring scale she's brought to check her weight.

Ms. FRANCISCO: (Foreign language spoken)

(Soundbite of a crying baby)

BLOCK: Nearly six pounds, a normal weight.

Ms. FRANCISCO: (Foreign language spoken)

BLOCK: She warns the mom to look out for danger signs: diarrhea, umbilical infection, and she urges the couple to bring the baby in to a hospital soon for vaccines.

Ms. FRANCISCO: (Foreign language spoken)

BLOCK: The dad says they'll try to find a bicycle to get to the nearest health center in Monapo.

Unidentified Man #2: (Foreign language spoken)

BLOCK: So you and your wife on the bicycle with your baby on your back.

Unidentified Man #2: Yeah.

BLOCK: And even assuming they do find a bike, it will take them three hours to get there. This community is about 18 miles from the nearest clinic down rutted, red dirt roads.

This family's story is typical of rural Mozambique. In the countryside, more than half the babies born are delivered like Belita's was: not in a health facility but at home; the women often attended by a relative or friend, but not by a skilled health worker.

The risks are great for both mother and child. So, the government is trying to encourage women to have their babies in maternity units, like the one at the Rural Hospital of Monapo. This hospital is a grim outpost, old and battered.

(Soundbite of a creaking gate)

BLOCK: In the tiny maternity room, two women with bulging bellies are lying under blue sheets covered with old bloodstains. One woman has an IV drip. She moans softly and grips the metal bed frame. A piece of paper taped to the wall urges: Bring Your Baby into the World Smiling - it turns out to be a cruel wish.

Minutes after we arrive, more quickly than seems possible, both women have quietly given birth side by side, with no curtain for privacy, and with virtually no assistance. There is no doctor on hand.

A nurse holds up one baby, a boy, by his feet and vigorously slaps his back, drawing his first cry before bundling him in a cloth and taking him to be weighed. But the other baby, a girl, is silent. She's still and blue.

The nurses move with no great urgency. They suction the baby's mouth, try to pump air into her lungs, holding a bag mask over her mouth. They try chest compressions. Excruciating minutes go by. The newborn girl never takes a breath.

The mother, named Fatima Florenco, is expressionless, maybe stunned or maybe resigned to this outcome.

Mr. MESSIAS MIRECHE (Head Nurse, Rural Hospital of Monapo): (Foreign language spoken)

BLOCK: Outside the hospital, head nurse Messias Mireche says unfortunately, this baby died because the mother delayed getting to the hospital. Fatima had apparently been in labor for two days before coming here.

Mr. MIRECHE: (Foreign language spoken)

BLOCK: Maybe she didn't come in time because she didn't have a way to get here, he adds. Or maybe, she didn't know how important it is to get to the hospital.

But all that said, even once she got there, the bare-bones hospital had no fetal heart monitor, no doctor standing by to perform an emergency Caesarian section.

As unforgiving as conditions are at the Monapo Rural Hospital, some 40 miles away, in the city of Nacala, there's a brand new hospital painted a creamy yellow. It's spotless. And there you might find your best hope in nurse Laura Simbini.

Ms. LAURA SIMBINI (Nurse): (Foreign language spoken)

BLOCK: Simbini is trained in maternal-child health. And she embodies one of the ways Mozambique is trying to improve outcomes for women and children. Mozambique has one of the worst doctor-patient ratios in the world: Just one doctor for every 25,000 people. So, nurses like Laura Simbini have been trained to perform emergency surgery.

Ms. SIMBINI: (Foreign language spoken)

BLOCK: She can do Caesarian sections, hysterectomies, she can operate to treat ectopic pregnancies and sepsis - all things that we would consider the exclusive province of a doctor, she can do as a nurse.

Ms. SIMBINI: (Through Translator) We do it this way because we have very few specialists. So we were trained to deal with emergency situations. We have a doctor here, a specialist, but only one.

BLOCK: Nurse Simbini can't talk long, she has two C-section patients waiting for her - one is a 15-year-old girl.

Ms. SIMBINI: (Foreign language spoken)

BLOCK: Big baby, small mom, Nurse Simbini explains and off she goes to operate.

Ms. SIMBINI: (Foreign language spoken)

BLOCK: The Ministry of Health has trained 60 nurses like Laura Simbini around the country, providing emergency obstetric care to women who might otherwise have none.

The Mozambican government knows the numbers for maternal and infant deaths are still way too high. But this, at least, is one way to try to bring those numbers down.

Wednesday on the program, we'll hear about a drug that's proved highly effective in preventing the leading cause of maternal death in Mozambique, postpartum hemorrhage.

Unidentified Man: I can say in one word, simple. Well, this Misoprostol is something - a miraculous drug.

BLOCK: The promise and the risks of the drug Misoprostol, Wednesday on ALL THINGS CONSIDERED.

Copyright © 2011 NPR. All rights reserved. No quotes from the materials contained herein may be used in any media without attribution to NPR. This transcript is provided for personal, noncommercial use only, pursuant to our Terms of Use. Any other use requires NPR's prior permission. Visit our permissions page for further information.

NPR transcripts are created on a rush deadline by a contractor for NPR, and accuracy and availability may vary. This text may not be in its final form and may be updated or revised in the future. Please be aware that the authoritative record of NPR's programming is the audio.

Comments

 

Please keep your community civil. All comments must follow the NPR.org Community rules and terms of use, and will be moderated prior to posting. NPR reserves the right to use the comments we receive, in whole or in part, and to use the commenter's name and location, in any medium. See also the Terms of Use, Privacy Policy and Community FAQ.