RENEE MONTAGNE, host:

This is MORNING EDITION, from NPR News. I'm Renee Montagne.

STEVE INSKEEP, host:

And I'm Steve Inskeep.

President Obama's Homeland Security secretary visits Arizona tomorrow. Janet Napolitano used to be governor of Arizona.

MONTAGNE: Now she oversees border security, one of the hottest of all hot-button issues. Texas officials contend that drug violence is spilling across the border into the U.S., a charge Napolitano denies.

Secretary JANET NAPOLITANO (Department of Homeland Security): It is inaccurate to state, as too many have, that the United States side of the border is overrun with violence or out of control.

MONTAGNE: The administration contends it's increasing security, and also increasing the number of deportations. As on so many issues, there are two completely different versions of reality.

INSKEEP: So in the second of two reports, NPR's John Burnett asks who's right.

JOHN BURNETT: Earlier this year, the Government Accountability Office issued a report that the U.S. Border Patrol has achieved operational control of 44 percent of the southern border. Their mission is hindered by difficult terrain, lack of roads, and a need to prioritize hotspots on the western border. What that means is that, basically, everything downstream of El Paso, Texas, is under less control, which is no surprise to Mike Vickers.

Mr. MIKE VICKERS (Veterinarian, Rancher): I'm looking for something dead in here.

BURNETT: Are you looking for a dead person?

Mr. VICKERS: Maybe. Watch out.

(Soundbite of scraping)

BURNETT: The white-haired rancher in a four-wheeler notices with concern a flock of buzzards perched in an oak tree. He knows what that can mean. Hundreds of illegal immigrants and the occasional drug trafficker cross his ranch every year going north, and some don't make it.

Mr. VICKERS: This is a significant trail, here. You can see where they come over the fence.

BURNETT: Mike Vickers is a veterinarian, cattleman and agitator. For at least six years, he's been telling anyone who will listen that the border remains porous. His ranch straddles a busy smuggling corridor in Brooks County, 70 miles north of the Rio Grande. All the time, he says, he finds the bodies of immigrants who were abandoned by their smuggler and perished in these hot, dry, thorny pastures.

Vickers sits in the shade with Lavoyger Durham, who manages another ranch nearby.

Mr. VICKERS: These people are being left out here to die, and it's a horrible death, getting cramped up, going down, maybe even have wild animals out here finish you off.

Mr. LAVOYGER DURHAM (Ranch Manager): You're lucky if you find them dead before the coyotes, the wild hogs, the caracaras and the buzzards eat them up.

Mr. VICKERS: Most of these people are within 15 or 20 minutes of where we're sitting right here. So we're tired of it. We're fed up with it. And for President Obama to go to El Paso and say that the border's secure, I just can't understand that. So we're here to say otherwise.

BURNETT: Some of the grim stories are real, like the bodies that turn up on Mike Vickers' ranch, or the tattooed young men who are spotted hiking through ranchland with backpacks full of marijuana. But some of the stories are imaginary, a product of the fear that has taken root here in the border country.

Consider the barbarous news streaming out of Mexico, such as the cartel that held a fiesta and hung its enemies like pinatas and beat them to death for pleasure. This is the type of spillover violence that Texans expect and dread any day.

Freddy Longoria is a ranch foreman on a South Texas ranch. His boss asked us not to name the ranch.

Mr. FREDDIE LONGORIA (Ranch Foreman): What I heard is that they had killed a lady on the Old Mines Road, going towards Laredo, over, like, a retaliation. They beheaded her. I mean, they cut her head off.

BURNETT: A gate guard at a ranch on Old Mines Road beheaded for turning in traffickers. An oilfield worker attacked and decapitated by immigrants who wanted his pickup. Mafiosos from the Zetas cartel took over a ranch outside of Laredo. These are just a few of the rumors you hear in the cafes and taquerias of South Texas these days. Law enforcement says every one of them is false. Nevertheless, they have an effect.

(Soundbite of buffalos grunting)

BURNETT: Freddy Longoria, with the lanky grace of a cowboy, leans against his pickup and watches a herd of bison feeding contentedly.

Mr. LONGORIA: You hear a lot of stories out here. Some of those, sometimes they hit too close to home and you get worried. You get a little bit paranoid and start carrying a gun and taking more precautions.

(Soundbite of buffalos grunting)

BURNETT: The challenge is how to define spillover violence. The federal government says spillover must be drug-related violence that targets innocent civilians or law enforcement on U.S. soil. But others think that's too narrow. They think spillover should include any trafficker-on-trafficker violence in the U.S. that originates with Mexican organized crime.

Unidentified Man: (Spanish spoken)

BURNETT: El Paso has had incidents. Twice, bullets from shootouts in Juarez flew across the Rio Grande and struck public buildings in El Paso. And there was a notorious kidnapping in 2009, recounts El Paso Mayor John Cook.

Mayor JOHN COOK (El Paso, Texas): It was a person who was involved in the drug trade lost his shipment to the Border Patrol, which tells me the Border Patrol is sort of doing their job. And because he lost his shipment, he was kidnapped out of his home, brought over to Juarez, where he was executed.

BURNETT: Do you consider that spillover violence?

Mayor COOK: Yeah, I would actually consider that spillover violence. This drug war now has lasted for three years, and you have one case of spillover violence that we can clearly identify in a city of 800,000 people.

BURNETT: One of the bloodiest regions of the Mexican cartel war is the state of Tamaulipas, where massacres, cop killings and beheadings have become common. It sits directly across from the Rio Grande Valley at the tip of Texas, where the chief of the Border Patrol is Rosendo Hinojosa.

Mr. ROSENDO HINOJOSA (Chief, Border Patrol): Are we seeing the level of violence in the immediate border area that we're seeing south of the border? Absolutely not. Our job is to make sure that that type of activity does not come into the United States.

BURNETT: Hinojosa acknowledges the border is growing more dangerous for his nearly 2,500 agents.

Mr. HINOJOSA: But are we seeing out of control, are we seeing a shooting every week? Absolutely not.

BURNETT: Last year, the nonpartisan Congressional Research Service took up the question of whether mayhem is spilling over from Mexico. It examined the FBI violent crime rates in all 230 U.S. cities where investigators say Mexican cartels have infiltrated, from Del Rio, Texas, to Liberal, Kansas, to Kalamazoo, Michigan.

CRS concluded in these cartel distribution hubs, there's been no statistical increase in violent crime, which is just plain wrong, according to the Texas Department of Public Safety. The DPS reports that in the first five months of 2011, there were 22 murders, 24 assaults, 15 shootings and five kidnappings in Texas that it considers cartel-related violence. A third of them occurred in Hidalgo County in the Rio Grande Valley.

Mr. LUPE TREVINO (Sheriff, Hidalgo County): My name's Lupe Trevino, and I am the elected sheriff for Hidalgo County, Texas.

BURNETT: Trevino's office is what you'd expect from a South Texas sheriff: deer heads, guns under glass, a rattlesnake in amber. He's worked on the border for 25 years.

Mr. TREVINO: The question you should be asking me is this: Is the border under control? No, it's not. Because if it was under control, it would be completely sealed. There would be absolutely no smuggling whatsoever either north or southbound.

BURNETT: OK. The border's not secure. This from a long-time border lawman who's friendly to the Obama administration. He sits on a task force that reports to Secretary Napolitano. But is it the Wild West?

Mr. TREVINO: We have always had drug violence anywhere in the United States, because that is the nature of the business. You know why it's spillover now? Because that is the flavor of the month.

BURNETT: Nevertheless, the Obama administration announced that it will extend, for another three months, the deployment of 1,200 National Guard on the border to help stem the illegal flow of people and drugs.

John Burnett, NPR News.

MONTAGNE: And we have an update now on a legal case involving the U.S. and Mexico. The government of Mexico, together with the State Department and the White House, have been calling for a reprieve for a Mexican man facing the death penalty in Texas. Humberto Leal was convicted of killing a 16-year-old girl in San Antonio back in 1994, but there have been questions about the way his case was handled.

Despite those concerns, yesterday, the Texas Parole Board refused to stop the execution of Humberto Leal, which is scheduled to take place tomorrow.

(Soundbite of music)

MONTAGNE: You're listening to MORNING EDITION, from NPR News.

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