MELISSA BLOCK, host:

This is ALL THINGS CONSIDERED from NPR News. I'm Melissa Block.

ROBERT SIEGEL, host:

And I'm Robert Siegel.

The American-led war in Afghanistan is changing. Not simply because U.S. troops will begin coming home soon, but the fighting itself is shifting from the south to the east. There, high, craggy mountains offer shelter to Taliban fighters, and one group of fighters in particular, a branch of the Taliban known as the Haqqani network.

NPR's Tom Bowman has been in eastern Afghanistan with American soldiers from the first infantry division. He reports now on the fight, hillside to hillside, against the Haggani forces.

(Soundbite of vehicle)

TOM BOWMAN: Captain Jerry Lee Wood grinds his Toyota truck up a steep dirt incline at Combat Outpost Wilderness. He points to a dusty track off the road that curves up through the scrub brush.

Captain JERRY LEE WOOD (U.S. soldier): You see that little goat trail, like you see this major trail off to the left?

BOWMAN: Yeah.

Captain WOOD: That's where I take my officers and we run up that.

BOWMAN: The soldiers from Butcher Troop live in a collection of wood huts hundreds of feet below.

(Soundbite of vehicle)

BOWMAN: They're tucked into the side of a hill and surrounded by huge sandbags and ribbons of barbed wire. The mission here, protect a key road and search for Taliban.

Captain WOOD: This is the traditional cavalry fight. I mean, we are really on the forward edge. This is very hostile, you know, country, just like those guys building the Pacific Railroad. What these guys would have been doing back in 1800, you know, we're doing it now.

BOWMAN: And the hostile country is just across that roadway from his compound, in the dry mountains studded with small pine trees. It could be Nevada or Wyoming.

Captain WOOD: You see this closer mountain here and then you see the far mountain on the backside? Right in between the two mountains back there is the Haqqani homeland.

BOWMAN: Jalaluddin Haqqani, the now-elderly rebel warrior who fought the Soviets with a lot of weapons from the CIA. In the 1990s, he sided with the Taliban and al-Qaida and was essentially the top power broker in this area. His hands are in everything from trucking to kidnapping. Now, his network of tribal and foreign fighters is run by his sons, and it's the biggest threat to the Americans in eastern Afghanistan.

Captain WOOD: They shot artillery at us a couple of times before. And we pretty much returned fire with some heavy hands.

BOWMAN: A couple of times a week might be more accurate. His soldiers talk about Rocket Sunday and Target Tuesday. And sure enough, on Tuesday morning, the Haqqani network opened up again.

(Soundbite of explosions)

BOWMAN: A dozen mortar rounds slammed into the camp, some within feet of sleeping troops.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE SPEAKER #1: Hey, David. Hey, you guys all right in here?

UNIDENTIFIED MALE SPEAKER #2: All right, man.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE SPEAKER #3: Yeah. I got you. I got you.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE SPEAKER #1: Hey, get your asses out here and get in this bunker.

BOWMAN: American and Afghan soldiers scurry for cover. One Afghan soldier was seriously wounded. The soldiers from Butcher Troop fired back, hurling a barrage into the hillside.

(Soundbite of gunfire)

UNIDENTIFIED MALE SPEAKER #4: Give one more burst.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE SPEAKER #5: Back ridge line.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE SPEAKER #4: Back ridge line, bringing it down. (Unintelligible), right?

UNIDENTIFIED MALE SPEAKER #5: Yeah.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE SPEAKER #4: All right, (unintelligible).

BOWMAN: In a half-hour, the shelling stops. A medevac helicopter takes away the wounded Afghan soldier.

(Soundbite of helicopter)

BOWMAN: Soon, Apache helicopters sweep in over the mountainside, killing three of the insurgents who attacked the camp. Five others slipped away into the hills. Those Apache helicopters are targeting Haggani fighters every day. So is Colonel Chris Toner. He's is in charge of the thousands of American troops here in the east, many of them spread out in combat outposts in three provinces.

Colonel Toner lifts off from Combat Outpost Wilderness in a Black Hawk helicopter and banks east. Before long, he's hovering above a dry and hilly landscape that is the border between Afghanistan and Pakistan. It's the source of the colonel's greatest frustration. Haqqani is in Pakistan. So close, but the colonel can't reach him.

Colonel CHRIS TONER (U.S. soldier): The question I ask myself is, you know, what's he doing across the border from me? Because I can't affect that. And I don't know what he's doing.

BOWMAN: What the Haqqani network is doing is training fighters from inside Pakistan and sending suicide bombers, too. Back at his headquarters, Colonel Toner folds himself into a chair in his office. His walls are covered with large, detailed maps of his fight.

Colonel TONER: I don't think anybody will debate that the most resilient enemy network out there is Haqqani.

BOWMAN: But Haqqani's tactics, like suicide bombing, are now alienating tribal elders.

Colonel TONER: They're really at the point in time where they're just tired of fighting, and they don't see a link between what Haqqani did during the Mujahedeen days against the Soviets and what's he's trying to do now.

BOWMAN: Toner says that with the so-called surge in American troops, he's been able to take the fight to Haqqani, capturing more caches of weapons and bomb-making equipment. U.S. Special Forces have killed or captured hundreds of Haqqani fighters and commanders in nighttime raids. But hundreds, if not thousands, of Haqqani troops are still out there.

Lieutenant Colonel JESSE PEARSON (U.S. soldier): We have to push as hard as we can.

BOWMAN: That's Lieutenant Colonel Jesse Pearson, one of Toner's battalion commanders.

Lieutenant PEARSON: So this is when I tell my soldiers, we are going to be doing three and four patrols a day. We're going to be doing air assaults. We're going to be going after the enemy very aggressively because this is one we have to win.

BOWMAN: But senior officers say they still don't have enough troops to win, so more U.S. troops will be shifted to the east from southern Afghanistan starting next year, now that the fight around Kandahar and Helmand is winding down. Colonel Toner says the goal is to hammer the Haqqani network, either kill its leaders or weaken them so much that they'll negotiate with the Afghan government.

Colonel TONER: We've got to get the enemy force to the point in time that the Afghan National Security Forces can handle them. I think we're at that point right now, but I'm not advocating for leaving tomorrow because we still have to buy time and allow for the government to mature.

BOWMAN: Afghan officials like Governor Abdul Jabbar Naeemi of Khost province say their government is maturing. He says he's working to provide services, reach out to tribal elders. And for that, the Haqqanis have made him their top assassination target in this area.

Governor ABDUL JABBAR NAEEMI (Afghanistan): The enemy is trying to stop our progress. But this is our commitment. We are trying to provide services to the people. We are trying to provide security to the people, we are trying to provide facilities to the people.

BOWMAN: Governor Naeemi walks into his compound with Colonel Toner. There are wide lawns, flowers and fruit trees. A peacock strolls the grounds.

Colonel TONER: This will be even more beautiful when we - the grass looks very good (unintelligible).

BOWMAN: Local workers are building a high stone wall meant to replace the American sandbags and razor wire that border the compound - one more effort to reflect a transition to Afghan authority. Governor Naeemi settles into a plush sofa in his sitting room. Nuts and fruits are set on the table. Over spiced milk chai, he talks about the way ahead. He says the insurgents must be stopped. He's pressed on whether negotiation is possible with Siraj Haqqani, the son of the legendary Mujahedeen leader who now runs the network.

Governor NAEEMI: Actually, if Siraj Haqqani is thinking to join this process, he's most welcome. They should leave their arms, without any conditions to work for stability in this country.

BOWMAN: Do you think Siraj will do that?

Governor NAEEMI: That's up to him.

BOWMAN: The governor looks doubtful, as he fingers his amber prayer beads. Many American officers agree. They're striking Haqqani's safe haven in Pakistan with bombs from drone aircraft, hoping to get lucky and destroy the leadership. And, by sending more American troops to this area of Afghanistan, and building up the Afghan forces, they hope they can one day end the Haqqani threat.

Tom Bowman, NPR News, Khost, Afghanistan.

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