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Three states and two major cities say they've pulled out of a federal program aimed at deporting criminals who are in the U.S. illegally. And now, Boston's mayor has threatened to join them. The program is called Secure Communities. It's supposed to help federal authorities deport illegal immigrants who are hardened criminals.

But as NPR's Alex Kellogg reports, some state and local officials insist the program goes too far.

ALEX KELLOGG: To understand the controversy surrounding it, you have to understand how this program works.

(Soundbite of training video)

Unidentified Man: What is the Secure Communities Initiative? What does it ask you to do? And what are the civil rights issues...

KELLOGG: That's a training video produced by the Department of Homeland Security.

(Soundbite of training video)

Unidentified Man: It is designed to prioritize the identification and removal of aliens with criminal convictions from the country, with resources devoted first to those who pose the greatest threat.

KELLOGG: But critics say that's the problem, that less than half of those deported under the program are indeed felons or repeat offenders.

Mr. BERNARD PARKS (Councilman, City of Los Angeles): No one would disagree with the worst of the worst, the issue is they've gone well beyond that.

KELLOGG: Bernard Parks is a city councilman in Los Angeles and a former police chief there. He helped lead the charge when L.A. voted to opt out of the Secure Communities in June.

Mr. PARKS: The people that have been caught up in the net are families that have no crime, that have been victims; individuals that were cited for selling products without a city permit; individuals that were victims of domestic violence.

KELLOGG: In other words, not the bad guys. But the federal government says that's simply not true. The program has led to the deportation of tens of thousands of illegal immigrants since it launched two and a half years ago, many with criminal backgrounds.

(Soundbite of training video)

Unidentified Man: Under Secure Communities, your agency's fingerprint data that the state already sends to the FBI as part of the customary booking process is now shared with DHS.

KELLOGG: If Homeland Security confirms a suspect is in the country illegally, it can ask local authorities to detain that individual. That means that eventually that person may be deported.

But it's not easy. There are a bunch of hurdles: legal challenges can be made, asylum can be sought. It can take years to have someone removed from the U.S., and it costs taxpayers tons of money.

That's why supporters argue the criticisms being hurled at the program are unfair. They say the allegations the program often kicks out people who've done little or nothing wrong are simply not true.

Mr. DAVID MARTIN (Former Deputy General Counsel, Department of Homeland Security): On each one of those scores, those claims are grossly exaggerated.

KELLOGG: David Martin served as deputy general counsel to DHS for the first two years of the Obama administration. He says if victims or witnesses of crimes are caught in the system, it's the fault of local and state authorities. After all, they're the ones making the arrests.

Mr. MARTIN: Let me just emphasize something about Secure Communities. At its heart, it is a matter of sharing information about people who have been arrested for crimes. Most people would agree that these are folks who should be removed from the country.

KELLOGG: Not everyone agrees. The states of Illinois, New York and Massachusetts have all said they're pulling out of the program.

DHS officials declined to be interviewed for this story, but they've made clear that despite early miscommunications on the matter, the program is mandatory and that means no pulling out. In fact, the federal government expects 100 percent participation by 2013. Forty-three states are on board, and about half of all smaller, local jurisdictions in the U.S.

Still, this summer, DHS announced changes to the program intended to ease concerns about it. Those include redoubling efforts to target the most dangerous criminals first and federal authorities will also keep an eye out for signs of racial profiling.

Despite the outcry, the program still has lots of support.

State Senator TOMMY WILLIAMS (Republican, Texas): Nobody in Texas is taking our cues about what to do on this issue from Illinois, Massachusetts or New York.

KELLOGG: That's Texas State Senator Tommy Williams, a Republican.

Mr. WILLIAMS: We feel like it's important that if the federal government is not going to secure the border, that we need to make sure we're doing everything we can to keep our communities safe.

KELLOGG: Williams wants to pass a law that makes sure every Texas city and county not yet on board starts participating right away.

Alex Kellogg, NPR News, Washington.

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