RENEE MONTAGNE, host:
The current lineup on television is huge - literally. From reality shows to scripted fare, there may be more overweight and obese people on the small screen than ever before. Some critics say television does a lousy job of portraying fat people realistically. As part of our series about obesity, called "Living Large," Alex Cohen of member station KPCC looks at who is fat on television.
ALEX COHEN: About the only thing all real fat people have in common is that they weigh more. Beyond that, they have incredibly diverse styles, backgrounds and personalities. But on the small screen, says blogger and fat activist Lesley Kinzel, overweight people often get shrunk into the same stereotypes.
Ms. LESLEY KINZEL (Blogger) Fat people are lazy. Fat people eat too much. Fat people never, ever exercise. Fat people are filled with self-loathing, and fat people are desperate to be loved.
(Soundbite of TV show, "The Simpsons")
Mr. DAN CASTELLANETA (Actor): (as Homer Simpson) Oh no. Two hundred and thirty-nine pounds - I'm a whale.
COHEN: Exhibit A, Homer Simpson.
(Soundbite of TV show, "The Simpsons")
Unidentified Man (Actor): (as character) Well, from now on exercise every morning, Homer.
(Soundbite of grunting)
Ms. JULIE KAVNER (Actor): (as Marge Simpson) Oh, hmm. Don't strain yourself, dear.
Mr. CASTELLANETA: (as Homer Simpson) Good idea, Marge.
COHEN: Homer's been downing doughnuts for more than two decades, but the archetype of the fat, foolish guy dates all the way back to the 1950s with "The Honeymooners," says psychotherapist and pop culture analyst Beth Bernstein.
Ms. BETH BERNSTEIN (Psychotherapist): Ralph Kramden really started the formula of the fat, bumbling man with the thin, capable, long-suffering wife that's been repeated from "All in the Family" to "King of Queens" and "The Simpsons" and "Family Guy," and all those kind of shows.
COHEN: But at least hefty guys get main roles on TV. Weighty women seldom do. Take it from Kirstie Alley, who played herself six years ago on Showtime's "Fat Actress" - furious that a bigger waistline kept her from bigger parts.
(Soundbite of TV show, "Fat Actress")
Ms. KIRSTIE ALLEY: I mean, look, John Goodman's got his own show, and Jason Alexander looks like a freaking bowling ball, and how about James Gandolfini? He's like the size of a whale. He's way, way, way fatter than I am.
COHEN: Like the fat fellas, plus-sized women tend to fall into certain stereotypes too, says Beth Bernstein. They're usually the fat, funny best friend.
Ms. BERNSTEIN: Never has a boyfriend, is never the focus of a story but is kind of endearing. And sometimes you have - if it's a woman of color, you have -what we kind of call it shorthand - is like, the sassy black woman.
COHEN: During the '70s and '80s, says Bernstein, bigger black actresses usually played sassy maternal types, from the moms on "What's Happening!!" and "Good Times" to Nell Carter as the feisty housekeeper on "Gimme a Break."
(Soundbite of TV show, "Gimme a Break")
Mr. JOEY LAWRENCE (Actor): (as Joey) I don't think you're fat, Nell.
Ms. NELL CARTER (Actress): (as Nell) Oh, thanks, sweetheart. But if I gain any more weight, I'm going to have to trade in my nightgown for a Hefty bag.
COHEN: In recent years, TV has gotten a bit better, says blogger Leslie Kinzel. At least some of the women now have romantic plot lines - like the lead character who finds love at an Overeaters Anonymous meeting on CBS's "Mike and Molly."
Ms. KINZEL: It's a show that's trying, I think, to be a little more normalizing of fatness. But at the same time, because it's a sitcom and because it sort of depends on these short, quick jokes that a huge number of people will get, one of the easiest things to joke about is someone being fat.
(Soundbite of TV show, "Mike and Molly")
Mr. BILLY GARDELL (Actor): (as Mike) Hi. My name is Mike. I'm an overeater.
GROUP: Hi, Mike.
Mr. GARDELL: I had a pretty fair week. I lost three pounds.
(Soundbite of applause)
Mr. GARDELL: Then I took off my shirt, and I found it right about here.
Ms. KINZEL: I don't have a problem with fat jokes that are funny. The problem is that very few of them are.
COHEN: And, adds Leslie Kinzel, why does weight always have to be treated as a joke? Maybe you've noticed that every TV clip you've heard so far in this story has been from a sitcom. That's no coincidence. Most dramas tend to shy away from the subject. And those that do don't always fare well.
Kinzel points to the ABC family drama "Huge," about teens at a weight loss camp. It was a huge hit with overweight viewers, but didn't rate as well with the rest of the country. The network canceled it after just 10 episodes. Luckily, says Kinzel, an actress from "Huge" has come back on one of TV's most popular programs.
(Soundbite of "Glee" theme music)
COHEN: The character of Lauren Zizes is a snarky wrestler and the newest member of the singing club on Fox's "Glee." Viewers were recently shocked when one of the show's hottest hunks tried to woo her with a song - and failed.
(Soundbite of TV show, "Glee")
Mr. MARK SALLING (Actor): (as Noah "Puck" Puckerman) Let's be honest here. You look the way you look and I'm embracing that. I mean, it turns me on, babe.
Ms. ASHLEY FINK (Actress): (as Lauren Zizes): I look like America looks. And like America, I need more than just a song to get my juices flowing.
COHEN: Actress Ashley Fink plays Lauren Zizes. She thinks Hollywood has gotten better at portraying fat people. But she admits she almost never comes across characters on TV that mirror her real experience as an overweight person.
Ms. FINK: I dance, I have a great time, I sing, I have great friends, I don't hide in my house because I'm large. You know, and I think that it's unfair that that's not represented on TV.
COHEN: But, Fink adds, she finds sitcoms and dramas way more acceptable than reality shows like "The Biggest Loser," where contestants are weighed in weekly wearing next to nothing.
Ms. FINK: Why do they have to be in sports bras and tiny shorts? It's so people at home will be like, oh, they're so fat. That's so gross. You wouldn't treat animals on television the way they treat some of these people.
COHEN: Psychotherapist Beth Bernstein likens "The Biggest Loser" to a tent revival, where contestants repent their former, miserable, fat lives, and only gain redemption once they've lost weight.
(Soundbite of TV show, "Biggest Loser")
DON (Contestant, "The Biggest Loser"): I'm tired of being that fat guy. I'm tired of not having a normal life.
COHEN: Take, for example, a contestant named Don, who initially weighed in at 309 pounds.
(Soundbite of TV show, "The Biggest Loser")
DON: And a couple of months ago, my son, who is so distraught over my obesity -a couple of months ago, he said he didn't want to have anything else to do with me.
COHEN: Beth Bernstein says TV like that can fuel the terror that people, especially those with eating disorders, have of being fat.
Ms. BERNSTEIN: Who wants to be a member of a population where you're mocked and made fun of, and criticized and judged?
COHEN: Former "Biggest Loser" contestant Danny Cahill sees things differently. He says being a fat guy on TV was the best thing that ever happened to him. He's since become a motivational speaker, and he's resurrected a former career in music.
(Soundbite of song)
Mr. DANNY CAHILL (Singer): (Singing) This is your second chance at life. Don't you wait there for it...
COHEN: Cahill says his second chance came when he appeared on season eight of "The Biggest Loser" and lost more than half his body weight. He says chronicling that experience on national TV sent a tremendously positive message.
Mr. CAHILL: And in 11 months, if you can go from 430 pounds to running the Boston Marathon, there's nothing you can't do. And that's what I want people to know, that it's never too late to make a change and change your life.
COHEN: It's hard to dispute that "The Biggest Loser" has inspired Americans, says the show's creator, J.D. Roth. People now pay thousands of dollars to go on "Biggest Loser" weight loss cruises. Each year, the show is inundated with audition videos.
Mr. J.D. ROTH (Creator, "The Biggest Loser"): After season one, we were getting 250,000 tapes a year. The U.S. Postal Service quit - twice - delivering.
COHEN: Roth is now working on the latest addition of ABC's "Extreme Makeover" franchise - the weight loss edition. He says as long as there are overweight people in America, you can bet there will be even more of these shows on TV.
For NPR News, I'm Alex Cohen.
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