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And let's go next to Atlanta, where about 48,000 students are headed back to school this week. They have a lot of work ahead, and we don't just mean the students. The city's public school system is recovering from a scandal that involved widespread cheating on student tests. Nearly 200 teachers and staff have been implicated at about half of the district's schools. NPR's Kathy Lohr reports.

KATHY LOHR: The district downplayed reports that showed a huge number of incorrect answers on student achievement tests were changed, so state investigators got involved and just last month Governor Nathan Deal released a 400 page report that detailed unethical behavior and a climate of fear and intimidation.

G: The report's findings are troubling, but I am encouraged that this investigation will bring closure to the problems that existed in the Atlanta Public Schools and restore the focus on students and the classroom.

LOHR: Investigators found some teachers organized test changing parties. In one school, a teacher used a razor blade to open the plastic wrapping that covered the tests - copied them for each grade, then resealed the books using a lighter to melt the plastic. Some administrators were found to have worn gloves when they changed answers so they would not leave fingerprints. There were bonuses if students performed well and humiliation for teachers whose pupils did not. But as school began this week, many were hoping to move on.

M: As you know, I'll be teaching math and science. Well, our first unit in math will be on data and graphing.

LOHR: Princess Watts stands in front of her fifth grade class at Burgess Peterson Academy in east Atlanta. She passes out the first tests of the year to gauge how much students have retained.

M: However, I know how it is over the summer, where you can forget some of the information that you learned, but I do want you to put forth your very best effort. OK?

LOHR: This is not one of the schools implicated in the Atlanta cheating scandal, but Watts says people still ask her what's going on.

M: There is a cloud over, you know, a dark cloud over the APS school system, but my principal has done a great job of trying to keep everyone lifted.

LOHR: Watts is passionate about teaching in this mostly minority district and she says it's hard for her to believe so many teachers, principals and administrators cheated.

M: I guess maybe I'm in this little bubble and you think like everyone is like you and, you know, here to do their job and truly just educate the children. You know, it's a sad situation but here, I don't feel that way.

LOHR: Parents too are trying to move past the scandal

M: The kids are suffering. Us grown folks, well we suffered a little bit, but they are suffering more.

LOHR: Eva Stokes who has two grandchildren in the schools says there should be consequences for those who cheated.

M: Something should be done with them because the kids that they passed on they don't know anything. They don't know what they supposed to know in order to achieve what they need to achieve. So they should pay for it.

LOHR: Atlanta is not the only place where cheating has occurred. Schools in Washington DC, Philadelphia, and L.A. are among those grappling with their own scandals.

M: I do think it really ought to drive us to a greater reflection on how we examine student performance.

LOHR: Edward Queen with Emory University's Center for Ethics says it's clear in many districts, raising test scores is the only thing that matters.

M: Are we about education or are we about numbers? Are we about moving our children forward or are we about looking like we're moving our children forward?

LOHR: None of those named in the Atlanta cheating scandal is still working in the schools. District attorneys are now considering whether to file criminal charges. And the school district is facing another test. The board has been given until next month to figure out how to improve its leadership or the district could lose its accreditation.

Kathy Lohr, NPR News, Atlanta.


INSKEEP: This is NPR News.

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