Copyright ©2011 NPR. For personal, noncommercial use only. See Terms of Use. For other uses, prior permission required.

MELISSA BLOCK, host: This is ALL THINGS CONSIDERED from NPR News. I'm Melissa Block.

ROBERT SIEGEL, host: And I'm Robert Siegel. Yemen is now in its seventh month of protest with no end in sight. The president is still outside the country. He's recovering from serious injuries after an explosion at his palace mosque back in June. But he is still holding on to power. Protesters say they will stay in the streets until the president and his family relinquish power.

Few foreign journalists have been allowed into Yemen since the uprising began. But NPR's Kelly McEvers recently traveled there, and she sent this profile of an activist known as the woman behind the revolution.

KELLY MCEVERS: Tawakkol Karman lives in a tent. Every day and every night, she's sleeps on the ground, eats on the ground and works on the ground. Her husband and three kids come visit on the weekends.

(SOUNDBITE OF LAUGHTER)

MCEVERS: Today is my beautiful day, she says, tickling her 8-year-old son, Ibrahim. The one day a week I can spend with my family.

TAWAKKOL KARMAN: (Foreign language spoken)

MCEVERS: Tawakkol's tent is part of a sprawling encampment of tarp and concrete blocks that goes on for a mile, down a main street of Yemen's capital, Sana'a. They call it Change Square. For Tawakkol, the need for change became clear years ago. She first worked as a journalist, then began organizing protests.

KARMAN: We were little, then we become more and more. Sometimes maybe 400, 500. Sometimes more than 10,000.

MCEVERS: Back then, each protest was about a single issue: the jailing of a journalist, a land grab, a corrupt official. Authorities in this macho society thought they could just shut Tawakkol up by sending threats to her male friends and relatives. The worst one, she says, came in 2007.

KARMAN: They will kill me, and they will kidnap my children, and they throw them from the mountain. Yeah.

MCEVERS: So somebody said those exact words to you: We will kill you.

KARMAN: Yeah. Yes, we will throw all of you from the mountain.

MCEVERS: But Tawakkol didn't stop organizing protests. Looking back now, though, she says they did little good. Then came the uprising in Tunisia and the fall of the first Arab dictator on January 14th. In Yemen, Tawakkol and a dozen or so students marched toward the Tunisian embassy. Security forces came after them and tried to take their cameras. Tawakkol later called a meeting to plan the next protest. She remembers what she told the students.

KARMAN: We must not lose this moment. This is the only solution to save our country.

MCEVERS: The next day, the group again marched to the Tunisian embassy. For the first time, Tawakkol heard Yemenis utter what has now become the signature phrase of the Arab revolutions: (Foreign language spoken) The people want the fall of the regime. Tawakkol realized her project was about much more than individual issues.

KARMAN: We have to step down this regime. We have to start our country from new. And then, we have, you know, to own our own country.

MCEVERS: The protests spread to cities and towns around Yemen. In Egypt, protesters were assembling in a single square. In Yemen, they gathered in squares, some 20 in all. Then, on March 18th, security forces fired into Change Square in Sana'a, killing dozens and wounding hundreds more. Tawakkol saw friends lying on the ground, shot in the head. Survivors were too dazed to move.

KARMAN: To speak honest, I couldn't cry. It isn't good for me to cry in front of them.

MCEVERS: Instead, after helping get people to the hospital, Tawakkol climbed the main stage in the square and gave a speech.

KARMAN: All your bullets, all your violence will not stop us. Kill everybody that you want. We will not stop our struggle.

MCEVERS: And so the protests in Yemen grew to the hundreds of thousands. Generals, politicians, tribesmen all eventually joined Tawakkol's revolution. Three times, President Ali Abdullah Saleh agreed to sign a plan that would ease him out of power, and three times he backed out on his promise. In early June, an explosion at his palace mosque left him severely injured. He's now being treated in Saudi Arabia. Since he left, there have been gas shortages, electricity outages and more violence. Many Yemenis now say they're growing tired of the revolution. They just want life to be back to normal.

KARMAN: They said, OK, why don't they finish the revolution? They are right. We have to finish it. And we will.

MCEVERS: But how to finish it? Tawakkol says it's not just the revolution that's to blame. Saudi Arabia and the U.S. should push harder for Saleh and his relatives to step down.

KARMAN: Because Tunisia and Egypt, when they reached to this point, all the international society stand with them. They said that their regime has to step down and has to leave now.

MCEVERS: But in Yemen, the international community is working with Saleh and his relatives to negotiate a solution, as well as with the traditional opposition. The older, more established political parties, Tawakkol says, will do anything they can to secure positions in a new government. So Tawakkol and her supporters have set up their own transitional government, ready to take the place of the president and the parliament. It's a pretty bold move that so far has not been formally recognized by the international community. It doesn't seem realistic that you're just going to start ruling Yemen.

KARMAN: It's realistic. You will see. And I am sure, and you will see.

MCEVERS: Tawakkol says she's learned her lesson from Tunisia and Egypt. In those countries, the dictators fell fast, and then the hard work began. In Yemen, she says the hard work is happening now late into the night, in the squares. You don't want to stay in this tent forever.

(SOUNDBITE OF LAUGHTER)

KARMAN: Yes, I want to go home. But I will not go home immediately after we finish everything. We will not repeat the mistakes that people in Egypt, that they did, when they leave the squares. I will stay here until we guarantee Yemen modern and democracy and civil.

MCEVERS: Even, she says, if that takes seven more months on the ground, in the tent. Kelly McEvers, NPR News.

Copyright © 2011 NPR. All rights reserved. No quotes from the materials contained herein may be used in any media without attribution to NPR. This transcript is provided for personal, noncommercial use only, pursuant to our Terms of Use. Any other use requires NPR's prior permission. Visit our permissions page for further information.

NPR transcripts are created on a rush deadline by a contractor for NPR, and accuracy and availability may vary. This text may not be in its final form and may be updated or revised in the future. Please be aware that the authoritative record of NPR's programming is the audio.

Comments

 

Please keep your community civil. All comments must follow the NPR.org Community rules and terms of use, and will be moderated prior to posting. NPR reserves the right to use the comments we receive, in whole or in part, and to use the commenter's name and location, in any medium. See also the Terms of Use, Privacy Policy and Community FAQ.

Support comes from: