JOHN YDSTIE, host: Indonesia has been the target of criticism because of the destruction of its tropical rainforests. Deforestation releases carbon and Indonesia has become the world's third largest carbon emitter after the U.S. and China. Some conservationists argue the best way to protect Indonesia's forests is to guarantee the legal rights for people who, for centuries, have lived in them and used them in a sustainable way. NPR's Anthony Kuhn has this report on the changing lives of residents of the world's oldest rainforests on the island of Borneo.
ANTHONY KUHN: Layan Lujum leaves his house, wades across the river, and walks into the woods. He is the chief of Sekendal's village in western Borneo, or western Kalimantan, as Indonesians call it. Eighty-year-old Layan is a member of an indigenous ethnic group called the Dayaks, who used to have a reputation as fierce headhunters. As on most mornings, his first job today is to tend to his rubber trees.
(SOUNDBITE OF CUTTING)
KUHN: He uses a blade to cut a few grooves in each tree, allowing its white latex sap to trickle into a cup. Next, to goes to harvest some vegetables. First, he plucks a handful of fern leaves, then he snaps off the tops of a dozen or so bamboo shoots and puts them in a bucket. In a few minutes, he has enough for lunch. He goes to the river to wash and chop the shoots.
LAYAM LUJUM: (Through Translator) These kinds of bamboo don't belong to anyone in particular. Anyone can take them. The rubber trees belong to me. The bamboo here is fairly abandoned. If you go upstream, there's even more.
KUHN: This is not virgin forest, he explains. It's owned by the community. It's been cleared and replanted with useful flora such as cocoa and rambutan trees. There is one stand of virgin forest left in the area, but that has a special use.
LUJUM: (Through Translator) This is our padagi, or sacred grove. It's been here since the time of our ancestors, and we come here to pray.
(SOUNDBITE OF BIRDS SINGING)
KUHN: Birdsongs resonate through the forest canopy towering overhead. Down below, moss grows on an altar for making sacrifices. The spirits of the Dayak ancestors inhabit this sacred glade, Layan says, and it is forbidden to take any plants or animals out of it.
LUJUM: (Through Translator) We come here to ask for help in times of trouble, for example in times of war, and then we are victorious. We ask for bountiful rice harvests. We ask for the sick to heal. We make offerings to the spirits, even though we can't see them.
KUHN: Conservationists urge Indonesia's government to respect the Dayak's rights to their traditional lands and to affirm their stewardship of the forests based on their animist religion. But in much of Borneo, it appears to be too late.
(SOUNDBITE OF ENGINES REVVING)
KUHN: Where forests once stood, towns now hum with traffic and commerce. According to Indonesian government statistics, 60 percent of Borneo's rainforests have been cut down. Only 8 percent of its virgin forests remain, mostly in national parks. Western Borneo is the most denuded. Many Dayaks see it as just a matter of time before paved roads reach their villages and palm oil companies buy their land to convert into plantations. Farmer Lambai Sudian sold his 25 acres of land for the equivalent of around $1,000. He says the company offered locals jobs on the plantation, water, roads and 20 percent of the palm oil profits. Four years later, none of it has materialized.
LAMBAI SUDIAN: (Through Translator) Of course I regret selling. I regret it because the company didn't do what it said it would. If it did, we would be getting a share of the profits, and we'd be fine.
KUHN: Sujarni Alloy is an activist with an indigenous people's rights group. He says his village's land was sold to a palm oil company without residents' knowledge or consent.
SUJARNI ALLOY: (Through Translator) In the future, the children and grandchildren of the indigenous people will not own these lands. They will become beggars or criminals, because the bounty before their eyes is no longer theirs.
KUHN: Some of Indonesia's laws and policies recognize indigenous people's rights to their traditional lands. But the constitution says all land and resources belong to the state. Andy White is coordinator of the Rights and Resources Initiative, a coalition of groups focusing on land rights. He says this confusion over rights is a recipe for conflict.
ANDY WHITE: Seventy percent of the territory of the country, tens of millions of people are essentially squatters on their own historic lands. And over 20,000 villages are in this contested status, basically sitting on land that they think is their own and the ministry of forestry claims as their own.
KUHN: Corruption is endemic at all levels of government in Indonesia, but some observers point to the forestry ministry as an egregious example. A recent expose in Indonesia's Tempo magazine accuses officials from the forestry ministry of filling their political party's war chests with bribes, which businessmen pay in exchange for tracts of forested land.
KUNTORO MANGKUSOBROTO: It's not surprising. That's my reaction.
KUHN: Kuntoro Mangkusobroto is a troubleshooter for Indonesia's president and the head of a government task force on deforestation and climate change. He explains why he's not exactly astonished to see reports of graft in the forestry ministry, even though the ministry denies the allegations.
MANGKUSOBROTO: Forests are a means to the power holder to maintain his power by giving concessions to the military commander in the regions, governors or those who can support the regime. You cut trees, you got money, OK? And it's been practiced like that for 40 years.
(SOUNDBITE OF MUSIC)
KUHN: Before long, you may have to listen to recordings like this one if you want to hear the Dayaks doing their warrior dance. And you may have to go to a nature preserve to see what remains of Borneo's virgin forests. But Andy White points out that forests can be regrown to support communities and store carbon. Indigenous people have a right to choose their own path of development, he adds, and the issue of rights will not go away with the destruction of Indonesia's forests.
WHITE: Of course it's sad, of course it should be stopped, but that does not diminish the importance of this issue or the potential of these lands to be restored and for these communities to live much better lives in the future and for these areas to contribute much, much more to their own country's development.
(SOUNDBITE OF MUSIC)
KUHN: Some scientists argue that we have entered an anthropocene age in which mankind is the primary force changing our planet. If so, then we can expect this earth to reflect and record not just what we do and make but also the content of our souls and how we treat our fellow human beings. Anthony Kuhn, NPR News, Jakarta.
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