STEVE INSKEEP, host:
When Leon Panetta was director of the CIA, he helped to lead the effort to find and kill Osama bin Laden. Now Panetta may have an even harder job. He is two months into his new position as secretary of defense. And so here's what he has to do: He has to run two ground wars, keep up the fight against al-Qaida, and at the same time, figure out how to cut as much as one trillion dollars from the Pentagon budget.
NPR's Rachel Martin spoke with the new secretary at his office in the Pentagon, and has this profile.
RACHEL MARTIN: Washington is a serious town, and clearly, the Pentagon is a serious place where serious things happen. So, the first thing you really notice about Leon Panetta is this...
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MARTIN: Underneath that disarming laugh is a battle-tested politician. His quick smile and easygoing style have helped him win allies in tough Washington fights, as a Democratic Congressman from California, as both White House budget chief and White House chief of staff under President Clinton, director of the CIA, and now secretary of defense. I spoke with him in his Pentagon office.
Secretary LEON PANETTA (Defense Department): How are you today? Nice to see you.
MARTIN: Thank you for taking the time for me.
Sec. PANETTA: Sure.
MARTIN: When his schedule was packed with events marking 9/11.
Sec. PANETTA: If you had asked me 10 years ago that on the 10th anniversary of 9/11 I would be Secretary of Defense for the United States, I would've said you're smoking something, you know, that the likelihood is that I'd be back in Carmel Valley.
MARTIN: Working the walnut farm there that his Italian-American parents once ran.
Sec. PANETTA: And yet here I am, in this job. It's a very special honor to be able to sit in this office at the Department of Defense and have a responsibility to kind of carry on the mission that flowed from 9/11.
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MARTIN: Panetta paid a visit to the 9/11 memorial on a very rainy day in New York last week. Mayor Michael Bloomberg met him at ground zero.
Mayor MICHAEL BLOOMBERG (New York City): That's great work you're doing right now.
Sec. PANETTA: Thank you. Thank you.
Mayor BLOOMBERG: Put the umbrella over him.
Sec. PANETTA: You, too.
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MARTIN: Dressed in dark trench coats, the two men huddled under umbrellas as they walked through the memorial. The mayor pointed to the two large reflecting pools and the ongoing construction.
Mayor BLOOMBERG: ...and then the different buildings around here. The big one here is up to 78 stories, going up to 104, called the One World Trade Center. That's number seven. It's been open for a while.
MARTIN: For the past two years, Leon Panetta was at the center of the U.S. fight against the terrorist network that carried out those attacks. As the Director of the CIA, he oversaw the secret operations targeting al-Qaida operatives.
Sec. PANETTA: When I suddenly found myself in a situation where I was getting calls in the middle of the night dealing with operations that involved life and death, that was significant for me. You know, as someone who was raised as a Catholic and is faithful to my religion, I take those decisions not very lightly. You know, not only do you have to make a decision - you know, go, no-go - but then those decisions stay with you for a while.
MARTIN: Panetta helped lead the operation last spring that killed Osama bin Laden. He'd come into the CIA as an outsider, charged with leading an organization still licking its wounds after the intelligence failures of 9/11. Panetta had to win the CIA's trust to prove he had the agency's back, especially with Congress.
Former intelligence officials say he did just that. Bin Laden's death was a victory for the CIA, and it sealed Panetta's legacy within the intelligence community. But running the U.S. Department of Defense is an altogether different job.
Sec. PANETTA: It's a big place. It's a big place. You know, the CIA was obviously much smaller, and here, it's huge.
MARTIN: Panetta is still trying to figure out how to place someone - their rank, unit, where they served - based on decorations on their uniforms.
Sec. PANETTA: You know, I've got three million people here at the Pentagon, most of them in uniform.
MARTIN: Can you read someone's uniform yet?
Sec. PANETTA: I've gotten better at it. You're dealing, obviously, with people here on the top floor at the Pentagon. This isn't the top floor of the Pentagon. It was the top floor at the CIA, but it's not a top floor here.
RACHEL: So he's still learning his way around the building. The other thing he's trying to navigate: the budget crisis, how to make the more than $400 billion dollars in defense budget cuts already ordered by Congress as part of the deficit reduction deal this summer. The congressional supercommittee could end up cutting the Pentagon's budget another $200 to $500 billion dollars. Panetta is waging a personal campaign to keep that from happening.
Sec. PANETTA: There's a price to be paid here for the cuts that are being made. I've got to show the Congress, show the country that there are going to be some tough choices that have to have to be made, here. As long as we're dealing with a number that frankly is something that we can do, that we can implement over the next 10 years.
MARTIN: Do you have a number that would be tolerable?
Sec. PANETTA: Well, I think the - I mean, I think the $450 billion-dollar figure-plus that the Congress gave us, I think that's the number I feel is doable.
MARTIN: Panetta said cutting more than that makes America less safe.
Sec. PANETTA: You've cut everything across the board so badly that you can't provide good training, you can't provide good support, you can't provide good benefits, you can't provide good weapons, and the end result is that you have an ineffective military.
MARTIN: As it is, Panetta said the overall size of the force is going to have to come down, and he's looking at cutting some weapons systems, maybe even pay and benefits. To do that, he'll need buy-in from the service chiefs and the rank-and-file. But like the CIA, the military has its own culture and language, and in the first couple months, Panetta has made a couple missteps, like during that visit to New York last week when he said this.
Sec. PANETTA: I brought five soldiers with me, each came on after 9/11. They are part of each of the services that serve America.
MARTIN: He used the term soldier there to describe members of the Navy, Air Force, Marines and Coast Guard. Problem is, soldiers means people in the Army. It's not a huge gaffe, but it's the kind of mistake that drives the military crazy. But Panetta is new on the job. There is a learning curve. And trust takes time.
Sec. PANETTA: You've got to be honest with the people you deal with, and you have to be honest with yourself. You can't pretend that you're something different than who you are. And as long as you're straightforward, as long as you call it the way it is, I think ultimately you do build a kind of trust that pulls a team together.
MARTIN: How much more difficult is it here, though, when you're asking many folks, or will be soon, to do more with less?
Sec. PANETTA: Well, it isn't the first time I've had to do that. And the only way you can do that is you cannot shove these decisions down peoples' throats. You've got to make them be part of the process and also accept some of the responsibility to do it.
MARTIN: Just like at the CIA, Leon Panetta is an outsider, trying to work his way in, and the ultimate responsibility is his.
Rachel Martin, NPR News, Washington.
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