AUDIE CORNISH, Host:
This is WEEKEND EDITION from NPR News. I'm Audie Cornish. We begin this hour in Syria. The government there is struggling to put down a six-month-old rebellion by citizens demanding political freedom. Sophisticated web surveillance of anti-government activists has led to arrests. Pro-government hackers used the web to go after the opposition activists and their cause, and it's turned the Internet into another battleground. NPR's Deborah Amos reports from Beirut.
DEBORAH AMOS: Syria's embattled government insists there is no uprising in the country and explains the unrest this way on Syrian TV.
(SOUNDBITE OF AN EXPLOSION)
UNIDENTIFIED WOMAN: (foreign language spoken)
AMOS: It's a fabrication, says the announcer, an international plot. A satellite image zooms in on sites outside Syria where the announcer says replicas of Syrian cities have been built.
WOMAN: (foreign language spoken)
AMOS: That's where French, American and Israeli directors create protest videos, she says, using actors; cinematic tricks flashing on the screen.
(SOUNDBITE OF EXPLOSION)
AMOS: For those who don't quite buy this heavy-handed propaganda campaign, a cadre of young tech-savvy Syrians is waging a more sophisticated pro-regime effort, flooding Facebook, news sites and web pages. They call themselves the Syrian Electronic Army, conducting the most intense cyber warfare in the Arab world, says Jillian York with the Electronic Frontier Foundation.
JILLIAN YORK: You know, I've really never seen anything like this before, like the Syrian Electronic Army, which just seems to have so many members. I think it's really just their level of persistence and their level of activity that sets them apart.
AMOS: Are they part of the regime? That's uncertain, says York, although Syrian President Bashar al-Assad saluted the youth of the Electronic Army in a June speech when they first emerged.
YORK: So, it may be that they are supported by the government and maybe that they are independent pro-government forces.
AMOS: Either way, this army has created a stir by hacking hundreds of websites; most recently of Newsweek, the U.S. Department of Treasury, actor Brad Pitt and television personality Oprah Winfrey. To refute reports that Syria's uprising is a demand for political freedom, they blame terrorists for the violence, a message that matches the government's consistent line.
JOSH LANDIS: This is something that Iran, I think, has helped Syria with immensely.
AMOS: That's Josh Landis, an American academic who writes an influential blog on Syria. He says that when the protests began, the government's response was to try to close the country to outside information, banning almost all international media. The Iranians, says Landis, counseled Syria to mount a more sophisticated response.
LANDIS: You've got to train up a cadre of young, hip Syrians who can get on all these social media, and that's what they've tried to do.
AMOS: Do you think that it's effective or it is simply a nuisance, for example, an attack on Oprah's site?
LANDIS: Well, that sort of attack, you know, I think it's all ten thumbs. But to have young voices that are sympathetic to the regime - if the Syrians don't do it, the regime doesn't do it. They're going to lose even their own supporters because the message is just going to be so one sided.
AMOS: The electronic army counters the protests' demand for change with a message of fear, says Landis.
LANDIS: There's a religious war, there's sectarian war, they're going to kill the Christians, they're going to kill this, and they try to scare a much wider umbrella of people.
AMOS: For months, young activists had the upper hand on the web, organizing online, evading a security service that could do little more than monitor all cell phone calls. Now, it appears the regime is catching up, as demonstrated by the hacking skills of the Syrian Electronic Army, says activist Alexander Page, the alias he uses online.
ALEXANDER PAGE: So, it's definitely become much more serious, and I think people have to understand that. People have to see that the Syrian Electronic Army is capable of getting out of activists through what they're doing.
AMOS: The Internet has become almost as dangerous as protesting on the street, says activist Amr Sadek, because after arrest, activists are forced to contact friends.
AMR SADEK: At the end of the day, you will never know who is actually sitting behind that account and looking at that monitor. Security forces are using his account, are using his identity to know about their moves. That's one of the main risks.
AMOS: The relentless arrests, compromised protest plans and activists identified from secure lists on Facebook - it's all a sign of the success of this new campaign.