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MELISSA BLOCK, Host:

Politicians have long tried to sway policy with targeted TV ads. You may have seen one for President Obama's jobs plan.

(SOUNDBITE OF POLITICAL AD)

BARACK OBAMA: The next election is 14 months away. And the people who sent us here, they don't have the luxury of waiting 14 months. Some of them are living week to week...

BLOCK: The audience for this kind of ad is shrinking, but TV is still a core piece of campaign strategy heading into the election year. NPR's Ina Jaffe reports.

INA JAFFE: That ad for President Obama's jobs program wasn't from the Obama re-election campaign. It was from the Democratic National Committee. Brad Woodhouse, the DNC's communications director, says it's just been running in selected markets.

BRAD WOODHOUSE: We're obviously in markets in Ohio, where Speaker John Boehner hails from. We're in markets in Virginia, where the House majority leader, Eric Cantor, is from. And then, we're in key states, so it's a mix.

JAFFE: The DNC hasn't had the airwaves to itself.

(SOUNDBITE OF POLITICAL AD)

UNIDENTIFIED WOMAN: America's economy is hanging by a thread. Under the weight...

JAFFE: Crossroads GPS, an independent conservative organization, ran this spot over the summer.

(SOUNDBITE OF POLITICAL AD)

WOMAN: It's time to take away President Obama's blank check.

JAFFE: So advocacy organizations are getting on the air early in this campaign season. But are those ads reaching the people who count? Republican pollster Neil Newhouse, of Public Opinion Strategies, and Democratic pollster Thomas Eldon, of SEA Polling, surveyed likely voters about their TV viewing habits. Neil Newhouse.

NEIL NEWHOUSE: The number one finding in the survey, which really shocked me, is that 31 percent of voters we talked to said they had not watched live TV in the past week.

JAFFE: Live in this case doesn't mean a live event, like a baseball game. It means watching a TV program when a channel or network airs it. So if about a third of TV viewers only watched recorded programming in the previous week, there's no reason to assume they sat through the commercials. That's what the fast-forward button is for.

NEWHOUSE: You do a little deeper dive into the data, and there's not a gender difference. There's not, you know, a partisan difference - Republicans versus Democrats - not really, like, educational difference. Where there's a real difference is a generation difference. The generation gap is stark and wide.

JAFFE: Younger people, says Newhouse, are much less likely to watch TV in real time or even to watch television on a television. They may find computers or smartphones are more convenient. Matt Rosenberg is vice president of SAY Media, an Internet marketing company, which is one of the groups that commissioned the poll.

MATT ROSENBERG: People live very complex lives with media coming to them from many sources, and the big takeaway here is that advertisers need to communicate in any way they can to the audience that matters to them.

JAFFE: Case in point, Twitter announced last week that it will begin to carry political ads. But two-thirds of people even in this latest poll still watch TV in real time - sometimes, anyway. Kenneth Goldstein is head of the Campaign Media Analysis Group, known as CMAG, and he says a commercial doesn't even have to air widely for it to have a big impact.

KENNETH GOLDSTEIN: It is one of the chief things that reporters love to cover, which is the television ad war. So you get an added buzz after that. The swift boat ad is a terrific example of that.

JAFFE: That was the infamous ad campaign that aired in 2004 during the race between then-President Bush and Senator John Kerry, a decorated war veteran.

(SOUNDBITE OF POLITICAL AD)

GEORGE ELLIOTT: John Kerry has not been honest about what happened in Vietnam.

AL FRENCH: He is lying about his record.

VAN O: John Kerry lied to get his bronze star.

GOLDSTEIN: The swift boat ad was aired in a handful of really, really small markets, where it generated the buzz, where people were exposed to it was the massive coverage that the media gave to it.

JAFFE: The media also gave massive coverage to the extensive use of the Internet by the Obama campaign in 2008. But that had a different purpose than advertising, says Goldstein.

GOLDSTEIN: Basically, they used the Internet as an organizational tool and as a way to raise lots of money. And you know what they did with that money? They spent it on television.

JAFFE: So don't expect any letup in the number of political ads bombarding your TV screen in the coming year. Just expect your computer and smartphone screens to be bombarded too. Ina Jaffe, NPR News.

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